Day And Night

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Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

(figurative)*[Note: For ‘day’ and ‘night’ in the literal sense see art. Time.]

Besides their literal meanings, ‘day’ has frequently, and ‘night’ on two or three occasions, a figurative signification.

1. By a species of synecdoche, ‘day’ is often employed generally as an equivalent for ‘time’; cf. the similar use of יום in the OT ( Genesis 47:26,  Judges 18:30,  2 Samuel 21:1, etc.). ‘The day of salvation’ ( 2 Corinthians 6:2) is the time when salvation is possible; ‘the day of visitation’ ( 1 Peter 2:12), the time when God visits mankind with His grace, though some would make it equivalent to the day of judgment; ‘the evil day’ ( Ephesians 6:13), the time of Satan’s assaults. In this use of the word the plural is much more common, and is illustrated by such phrases as ‘for a few days’ ( Hebrews 12:10), ‘in the last days’ ( 2 Timothy 3:1), ‘good days’ ( 1 Peter 3:10). Sometimes ‘days’ is followed by the genitive either of a person or a thing. With the genitive of a person it denotes the period of his life or public activity. ‘The days of David’ ( Acts 7:45) are the years of his reign; ‘the days of Noah’ ( 1 Peter 3:20), the time when he was a preacher of righteousness to the disobedient world. With the genitive of a thing, ‘days’ refers to the time of its occurrence, as ‘in the days of the taxing’ ( Acts 5:37), ‘in the days of the voice’ ( Revelation 10:7).

2. In Rev. ‘day’ is used as a mystical symbol for a certain period of time. As to the length of that time the interpreters of apocalyptic have widely differed. Some have taken the author to be using words in their literal meaning when he writes in  Revelation 11:3;  Revelation 12:6 of the 1260 days (with which cf. the corresponding 42 months of  Revelation 13:5 and the ‘time and times and half a time,’ i.e. 3½ years, of  Revelation 12:14). More commonly the ‘year-day principle’ (cf.  Ezekiel 4:6) has been applied, so that the 1260 days have stood for the same number of years. Similarly the ‘ten days’ of tribulation ( Ezekiel 2:10), instead of being regarded as a round-number expression for a short and limited period (cf.  Job 19:3,  Daniel 1:12), has been taken to indicate a persecution of the Church at Smyrna lasting for 10 years.

3. In a specific sense ‘the day’ ( Romans 13:12,  1 Corinthians 3:13,  1 Thessalonians 5:5,  Hebrews 10:25,  2 Peter 1:19) and ‘that day’ ( 1 Thessalonians 5:4,  2 Thessalonians 1:10,  2 Timothy 1:12;  2 Timothy 1:18;  2 Timothy 4:8) are used metaphorically for the Parousia with all its glorious accompaniments, in contrast with which the present world of sin and sorrow appears as ‘the night.’ ‘The night is far spent,’ St. Paul exclaims, ‘the day is at hand’ ( Romans 13:12). Elsewhere he conceives of Christ’s people as illumined already by the glorious light of that day’s dawn, so that, although they still have the night around them just as others have, they do not belong to it, but are ‘sons of light and sons of the day’ ( 1 Thessalonians 5:5), whose calling it is to ‘cast off the works of darkness’ and to ‘put on the armour of light’ ( Romans 13:12; cf.  1 Thessalonians 5:8). In keeping with this metaphorical description of the glory of the Parousia as a shining day is the conception of the heavenly city, illumined by the presence of the Lamb ( Revelation 21:23), as a city of unfading light: ‘for there shall be no night there’ ( Revelation 21:25; cf.  Revelation 22:4-5). In this distinctive sense ‘the day’ is more fully described as ‘the day of the Lord’ ( 1 Thessalonians 5:2, etc.), ‘the day of our Lord Jesus’ ( 2 Corinthians 1:14), ‘the day of Jesus Christ’ ( Philippians 1:6), ‘the day of Christ’ ( Philippians 1:10), ‘the day of God’ ( 2 Peter 3:12), ‘the great day’ ( Judges 1:6), ‘the great day of God Almighty’ ( Revelation 16:14). It is further defined by a variety of epithets in which reference is made to its characteristic manifestations and events. Thus it is ‘the day of judgment’ ( 2 Peter 2:9;  2 Peter 3:7,  1 John 4:17), ‘of wrath’ ( Romans 2:5,  Revelation 6:17), ‘of slaughter’ ( James 5:5), ‘of revelation of the righteous judgment of God’ ( Romans 2:5); but also ‘the day of redemption’ ( Ephesians 4:30), a day in which Christ’s people shall not only have boldness ( 1 John 4:17), but shall rejoice ( Philippians 2:16), and whose coming they are to look for and earnestly desire ( 2 Peter 3:12).

J. C. Lambert.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [2]

"Day," יום , yōm  ; ordinarily, the Hebrew "day" lasted from dawn to the coming forth of the starts ( Nehemiah 4:21 ). The context usually makes it clear whether the term "day" refers to the period of twenty-four hours or to daytime; when there was a possibility of confusion, the term לילה , laylāh , "night," was added ( Genesis 7:4 ,  Genesis 7:12;  Genesis 31:39 ). The "day" is reckoned from evening to evening, in accordance with the order noted in the account of Creation, namely, "And there was evening and there was morning, one day" ( Genesis 1:5 );  Leviticus 23:32 and   Daniel 8:14 reflect the same mode of reckoning the day. The phrase ערב בּקר , ‛erebh bōker , "evening-morning," used in this last passage, is simply a variation of yōm and laylāh , "day" and "night"; it is the equivalent of the Greek νυχθήμερον , nuchthḗmeron ( 2 Corinthians 11:25 ). That the custom of reckoning the day as beginning in the evening and lasting until the following evening was probably of late origin is shown by the phrase "tarry all night" ( Judges 19:6-9 ); the context shows that the day is regarded as beginning in the morning; in the evening the day "declined," and until the new day (morning) arrived it was necessary to "tarry all night" (compare also  Numbers 11:32 ).

The transition of day to night begins before sunset and lasts till after sunset; the change of night to day begins before sunrise and continues until after sunrise. In both cases, neither ‛erebh , "evening," nor bōḳer , "morning," indicate an exact space of time (compare  Genesis 8:11;  Exodus 10:13;  Deuteronomy 16:6 ). The term נשׁף , nesheph , is used for both evening twilight and morning dawn (compare  1 Samuel 30:17;  2 Kings 7:5 ,  2 Kings 7:7;  Job 7:4 ). Since there were no definite measurements of the time of day, the various periods were indicated by the natural changes of the day; Thus "midday" was the time of the day when the sun mounted its highest (צהרים , co̱hŏrāyim ); afternoon was that part of the day when the sun declined (נטות היּום , neṭōth ha - yōm ); and evening was the time of the going down of the sun (ערב , ‛erebh ). "Between the evenings" (בּין הערבּים , bēn hā - ‛arbayim' was the interval between sunset and darkness. The day was not divided into hours until a late period. שׁעה , shā‛āh = Aramaic ( Daniel 3:6 ), is common in Syriac and in later Hebrew; it denoted, originally, any short space of time, and only later came to be equivalent to our "hour" (Driver). The threefold division of the day into watches continued into post-exilic Roman times; but the Roman method of four divisions was also known ( Mark 13:35 ), where all four divisions are referred to: "at even" (ὀψέ , opsé ), "midnight" (μεσονύκτιον , mesonúktion ), "at cock crowing" (ἀλεκτοροφωνία , alektorophōnı́a ), "in the morning" (πρωί , prōı́ ). These last extended from six to six o'clock (of also  Matthew 14:25;  Mark 13:35 ).  Acts 12:4 speaks of four parties of four Roman soldiers (quaternions), each of whom had to keep guard during one watch of the night. In Berākhōth 3 b , Rabbi Nathan (2nd century) knows of only three night-watches; but the patriarch, Rabbi Judah, knows four. See also Day .