King James Dictionary 
Composition, n. s as z.
1. In a general sense, the act of composing, or that which is composed the act of forming a whole or integral, by placing together and uniting different things, parts or ingredients or the whole body, mass or compound, thus formed. Thus we speak of the composition of medicines, by mixing divers ingredients, and call the whole mixture a composition. A composition of sand and clay is used for luting chimical vessels.
Vast pillars of stone, cased over with a composition that looks like marble.
Heat and vivacity, in age, is an excellent composition for business.
2. In literature, the act of inventing or combining ideas, clothing them with words, arranging them in order, and in general, committing them to paper, or otherwise writing them. Hence, 3. A written or printed work a writing, pamphlet or book. 4. In music, the act or art of forming tunes or a tune, song, anthem, air, or other musical piece. 5. The state of being placed together union conjunction combination.
Contemplate things first in their simple natures, and then view them in composition.
6. The disposition or arrangement of figures connected in a picture.
By composition is meant the distribution and orderly placing of things, both in general and particular.
7. Adjustment orderly disposition. Ben Jonson speaks of the composition of gesture, look, pronunciation and motion, in a preacher. 8. Mutual agreement to terms or conditions for the settlement of a difference or controversy.
Thus we are agreed
I crave our composition may be written.
9. Mutual agreement for the discharge of a debt, on terms or by means different from those required by the original contract, or by law, as by the payment of a different sum, or by making other compensation. Hence, the sum so paid, or compensation given, in lieu of that stipulated or required.
A read composition is when an agreement is made between the owner of lands and the parson or vicar, with the consent of the ordinary and the patron, that such lands shall for the future be discharged rom the payment of tithes, by reason of some land or other real recompense given to the parson, in lieu and satisfaction thereof.
A bankrupt is cleared by a commission of bankruptcy, or by composition with his creditors.
10. Consistency congruity. 11. The act of uniting simple ideas in a complex idea or conception opposed to analysis. 12. The joining of two words in a compound, as in book-case or the act of forming a word with a prefix or affix, which varies its signification as return, from turn preconcert, from concert endless from end. 13. The synthetical method of reasoning synthesis a method of reasoning from known or admitted truths or principles, as from axioms, postulates or propositions previously demonstrated, and from these deducing a clear knowledge of the thing to be proved or the act of collecting scattered parts of knowledge, and combining them into a system, so that the understanding is enabled distinctly to follow truth through its different stages of gradation. This method of reasoning is opposed to analysis or resolution. It begins with first principles, and by a train of reasoning from them, deduces the propositions or truths sought. Composition or synthesis proceeds by collecting or combining analysis or resolution, by separating or unfolding. 14. In printing, the act of setting types or characters in the composing-stick, to form lines, and of arranging the lines in a galley, to make a column or page, and from this to make a form. 15. In chimistry, the combination of different substances, or substances of different natures, by affinity from which results a compound substance, differing in properties from either of the component parts. Thus water is a composition of hydrogen and oxygen, which are invisible gases.
Webster's Dictionary 
(1): (n.) A literary, musical, or artistic production, especially one showing study and care in arrangement; - often used of an elementary essay or translation done as an educational exercise.
(2): (n.) The act or art of composing, or forming a whole or integral, by placing together and uniting different things, parts, or ingredients.
(3): (n.) The setting up of type and arranging it for printing.
(4): (n.) The act of writing for practice in a language, as English, Latin, German, etc.
(5): (n.) The art or practice of so combining the different parts of a work of art as to produce a harmonious whole; also, a work of art considered as such. See 4, below.
(6): (n.) The invention or combination of the parts of any literary work or discourse, or of a work of art; as, the composition of a poem or a piece of music.
(7): (n.) The state of being put together or composed; conjunction; combination; adjustment.
(8): (n.) A mass or body formed by combining two or more substances; as, a chemical composition.
(9): (n.) Consistency; accord; congruity.
(10): (n.) Mutual agreement to terms or conditions for the settlement of a difference or controversy; also, the terms or conditions of settlement; agreement.
(11): (n.) The adjustment of a debt, or avoidance of an obligation, by some form of compensation agreed on between the parties; also, the sum or amount of compensation agreed upon in the adjustment.
(12): (n.) Synthesis as opposed to analysis.