From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Easton's Bible Dictionary [1]

 Isaiah 59:17 Exodus 28:31 1 Samuel 15:27 Job 1:20 2:12 2 Samuel 13:18

The word translated "cloke", i.e., outer garment, in  Matthew 5:40 is in its plural form used of garments in general (  Matthew 17:2;  26:65 ). The cloak mentioned here and in  Luke 6:29 was the Greek himation, Latin pallium, and consisted of a large square piece of wollen cloth fastened round the shoulders, like the abba of the Arabs. This could be taken by a creditor (  Exodus 22:26,27 ), but the coat or tunic (Gr. chiton) mentioned in  Matthew 5:40 could not.

The cloak which Paul "left at Troas" (  2 Timothy 4:13 ) was the Roman paenula, a thick upper garment used chiefly in travelling as a protection from the weather. Some, however, have supposed that what Paul meant was a travelling-bag. In the Syriac version the word used means a bookcase. (See Dress .)

Webster's Dictionary [2]

(1): (n.) A loose outer garment, extending from the neck downwards, and commonly without sleeves. It is longer than a cape, and is worn both by men and by women.

(2): (n.) That which conceals; a disguise or pretext; an excuse; a fair pretense; a mask; a cover.

(3): (v. t.) To cover with, or as with, a cloak; hence, to hide or conceal.

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [3]

 Matthew 5:40 (c) This is an expression, both literal and figurative, to show how willing we should be to go the second mile for those who are in need.

 1 Peter 2:16 (a) It refers to hypocrisy and pretense.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [4]

See Garments

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [5]

( מְעַיל , Meil',  Isaiah 59:17, elsewhere rendered in our version "robe," or "mantle") was an upper garment or robe (of cotton?), which extended below the knees, open at the top, so as to be drawn over the head, and having arm-holes. It was worn by the high-priest under the ephod ( Exodus 28:31); also by kings and persons of distinction ( 1 Samuel 15:27;  Job 1:20;  Job 2:12), and by women ( 2 Samuel 13:18). (See Apparel).

So, in the New Testament, the word Ἱματίον , rendered "cloak" in  Matthew 5:40, is in its plural form taken for garments in general in other places ( Matthew 17:2;  Matthew 26:65;  Acts 7:58;  Acts 9:39). The cloak, or Pallium ( Acts 9:39), was the outer garment (different from the "coat" or Tunic, Χιτών ), and it seems to have been a large piece of woollen cloth nearly square, which was wrapped round the body, or fastened about the shoulders, and served also to wrap the wearer in at night. It might not be taken by a creditor ( Exodus 22:26-27), though the tunic could ( Matthew 5:40), which fact gives peculiar force to the injunction of our Lord. (See Clothing).

The Φελόνης , rendered "cloak" in  2 Timothy 4:13, was the Roman Poenula, a thick upper garment, used chiefly in traveling, instead of the toga, as a protection from the weather. It seems to have been a long cloak without sleeves, with only an opening for the head. Others suppose it to have been a traveling-bag or portmanteau for books, etc. Discussions De Palo Pauli have been written by Brenner (Giess. 1734), Heinse (Viteb. 1697), Lakemacher (Helmst. 1722), Rusmeier (Gryph. 1731), Vechner (s. 1. 1678). (See Dress), etc.