Citizenship Citizen

From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [1]

1: Πολίτης (Strong'S #4177 — Noun Masculine — polites — pol-ee'-tace )

"a member of a city or state, or the inhabitant of a country or district,"  Luke 15:15 , is used elsewhere in  Luke 19:14;  Acts 21:39 , and, in the most authentic mss., in  Hebrews 8:11 (where some texts have plesion, "a neighbor"). Apart from   Hebrews 8:11 , the word occurs only in the writings of Luke (himself a Greek).

2: Συμπολίτης (Strong'S #4847 — Noun Masculine — sumpolites — soom-pol-ee'-tace )

sun, "with," and No. 1, denotes "a fellow-citizen," i.e., possessing the same "citizenship,"  Ephesians 2:19 , used metaphorically in a spiritual sense.

3: Πολιτεία (Strong'S #4174 — Noun Feminine — politeia — pol-ee-ti'-ah )

signifies (a) "the relation in which a citizen stands to the state, the condition of a citizen, citizenship,"  Acts 22:28 , "with a great sum obtained I this citizenship" (AV, "freedom"). While Paul's "citizenship" of Tarsus was not of advantage outside that city, yet his Roman "citizenship" availed throughout the Roman Empire and, besides private rights, included (1) exemption from all degrading punishments; (2) a right of appeal to the emperor after a sentence; (3) a right to be sent to Rome for trial before the emperor if charged with a capital offense. Paul's father might have obtained "citizenship" (1) by manumission; (2) as a reward of merit; (3) by purchase; the contrast implied in  Acts 22:28 is perhaps against the last mentioned; (b) "a civil polity, the condition of a state, a commonwealth," said of Israel,   Ephesians 2:12 . See Commonwealth.

4: Πολίτευμα (Strong'S #4175 — Noun Neuter — politeuma — pol-it'-yoo-mah )

signifies "the condition, or life, of a citizen, citizenship;" it is said of the heavenly status of believers,  Philippians 3:20 , "our citizenship (AV, "conversation") is in Heaven." The RV marg. gives the alternative meaning, "commonwealth," i.e., community. See Commonwealth , Freedom.

 Philippians 1:27 Acts 23:1ConversationLive.

Holman Bible Dictionary [2]

 Acts 16:37 Acts 22:26-28

Becoming a Citizen Roman citizenship could be gained in several ways: birth to Roman parents, including birth to a Roman woman without regards to identity of the father; retirement from the army; being freed from slavery by a Roman master; buying freedom from slavery; being given citizenship by a Roman general or emperor as an individual or as part of a political unit; purchase of citizenship. Paul was born a citizen, but how his family gained citizenship we do not know.

Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities A citizen became liable for Roman property taxes and municipal taxes. A citizen had the right to vote in Rome, though different social classes had different rights at this point. A citizen became a member of a Roman tribe. A citizen was promised a fair trial without certain forms of harsh punishment. A citizen could not be executed without a trial and would not be crucified except by order of the emperor. A citizen could appeal to Caesar and had to be taken to Rome for trial.

Paul made use of these rights as he faced opposition and persecution ( Acts 16:37;  Acts 25:11 ).