From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Smith's Bible Dictionary [1]

Caphar. One of the numerous words employed in the Bible to denote A Village or Collection Of Dwellings Smaller Than A City (Ir ). Mr. Stanley proposes to render it as "hamlet." In names of places, it occurs in Chephar-he-Ammonai, Chephirah, Caphar-salama. To us, its chief interest arises from its forming a part of the name of Capernaum, that is, Capharnahum.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [2]

From a root "to cover," denoting "a village," smaller than 'Iyr , "a city." Appearing in Capharnaum. Arabic Κefr .

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [3]

(the Latinized form of the Hebrews prefix כְּפִראּ , Kefar', the "construct form" of Kaophar', כָּפָר , from the root of the same form signifying "to cover," Gesenisi, Thesaur. p. 707), one of the numerous words employed in the Bible (and still oftener in later or, rabbinical Hebrew) to denote a village or collection of dwellings smaller than a city (Reland, Palcest. p. 516). See IR-. Stanley proposes to render it by "hamlet" (Palest. App. § 87), to distinguish its occurrences from those of Chavvah, Chatser, Bayith, and other similar words. As an appellative it is found only three times:  1 Chronicles 27:25,  Song of Solomon 7:11, and  1 Samuel 6:18 (in the last the pointing being different, Ko'Pher, כֹּפֶּר ); but in neither is there anything to enable us to fix any special force to the word. In names of places, it occurs in Chephar-Akmmonai, Chephirah, Caphar- Salama and those here following; also Capernaum, Caparcotia etc. But the number of places compounded therewith mentioned in the Talmud shows that the name became a much commoner one at a time subsequent to the Biblical history. See the words beginning with KEPHAR-. In Arabic, the corresponding local epithet Kefr is in frequent use (see the lists in Robinson's Researches, 3, Append.).