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Fausset's Bible Dictionary [1]

Hebrew "the Mizpah," generally a "watchtower". Μizpeh (masculine) expresses rather the town; Μizpah (feminine) the district ( Joshua 11:8;  Joshua 11:8).

1. In Gilead E. of Jordan. The name Laban gave to Galeed, the "heap of witness," the memorial of his covenant with Jacob, and the boundary landmark between them ( Genesis 31:48-49;  Genesis 31:52), "for he said, Jehovah watch between me and thee when we are absent one from another." (See Galeed .) Herein he adopts Jacoh's language (Hebrew) and religion (Jehovah's worship). In  Hosea 5:1, "ye house of the king, ye have been a snare on Mizpah and a net spread upon Tabor," the sense is, Ye ought to have been "watchers" guarding Israel from evil, but ye have been as hunters entrapping them into it. Mizpah in the E. and Tabor in the W. include the high places of the whole kingdom in which the rulers set up idol altars. Here Israel assembled to choose a leader in its "misery" when Ammon, having oppressed eastern Palestine, was threatening also to attack Judah and Ephraim W. of Jordan.

Jephthah passed Mizpah on his way from Gilead to fight Ammon ( Judges 10:16-17;  Judges 11:29). Here on the hallowed ground he "uttered all his words before Jehovah in the Mizpah." Thenceforth his home was there; and at Mizpah the sad meeting with his daughter took place ( Judges 11:34). Seemingly identical with Ramoth Gilead, or Ramath ("high place") Mizpeh ( Joshua 13:26); now Es Salt , or else Mizpah is the Mount Jebel Osha, to the N.W. Here too Israel met, as being the ancient sanctuary, to determine what was to be done after the outrage perpetrated at Gibeah ( Judges 20:1;  Judges 20:3;  Judges 21:1;  Judges 21:5;  Judges 21:8).

2. Mizpeh Moab, where the Moabite king lived when David entrusted his parents to him ( 1 Samuel 22:3). Possibly Kir Moab, now Kerak, S.E. of the Dead Sea. More probably a mountain fastness on the high land bounding the Arboth Moab on the E. of the Dead Sea; on the mountains Abarim or Pisgah ( Deuteronomy 34:1), which David could easily reach from Bethlehem by crossing the Jordan near its entrance into the Dead Sea. Mount Pisgah was the most commanding eminence in Moab, and contained the sanctuary Nebo, of which part was called Zophim (derived from the same root as Mizpeh).

3. The land of Mizpah, the abode of the Hivites, "under Hermon," who joined Jabin against Joshua ( Joshua 11:8). To "the valley of Mizpah eastward" Joshua chased Jabin's conquered hosts ( Joshua 11:8). The valley is probably part of the great hollow, Coelo-Syria, now Buka'a ( Amos 1:5, margin), containing Baalbek; near which on the N. is the hill Haush tell Safiyeh.

4. Mizpah of Benjamin ( Joshua 18:26). Fortified by Asa against the invasions of northern Israel ( 1 Kings 15:22). The residence and scene of Gedaliah's murder ( Jeremiah 40:7-10;  Jeremiah 41:1-2), At Mizpah Israel repented at Samuel's call ( 1 Samuel 7:5-6), and "drew water and poured it out before the Lord," pleading symbolically their misery, powerlessness, and prostration by the Philistines, that so God might strengthen them. An act of deepest humiliation and confession of misery, the result of sin. ( Psalms 22:14;  Psalms 58:7;  2 Samuel 14:14;  Isaiah 40:29-30;  2 Corinthians 12:9-10;  Lamentations 2:19, "pour out thine heart like water before the face of Jehovah.") Here Samuel appointed Saul king ( 1 Kings 10:17-25). Mizpah with Bethel and Gilgal were the three cities which Samuel as judge visited on circuit.

Men of Mizpah on the return from Babylon helped in rebuilding the wall; "the ruler of the district of Mizpah" and "the ruler of Mizpah" took part in it ( Nehemiah 3:7;  Nehemiah 3:15;  Nehemiah 3:19). Judas Maccabeus ( 1 Maccabees 3:44) assembled the Jews at Maspha, as being "aforetime a place of prayer over against (implying Mizpah was in full sight of) Jerusalem." Josephus (Ant. 11:8, section 5; B. J. v. 2-3; 2:19, section 4; 5:2-3) mentions Sapha (a corruption of Maspha, Mizpah) as the place of Alexander's meeting Jaddua the high priest; and elsewhere calls it Scopus, i.e. the look-out place, from whence on the broad ridge (the continuation of Olivet), seven stadia N. of the city, one gains the first view of Jerusalem. The Septuagint twice renders Mizpah Skopia . Nebi Samwil, on the W. bound of Benjamin toward the Philistines, with whom Israel was about to war ( 1 Samuel 7:5-6), Robinson identifies with Mizpah.

But it is five miles off, though in view of the Sakhrah of the temple and the Church of the Sepulchre; and this is at variance with 1 Maccabees, "over against Jerusalem." Moreover it is out of the way of the pilgrims from Samaria to Jerusalem, murdered by Ishmael; whereas Scopus is in the direct road ( Jeremiah 41:7). Sennacherib at Nob first caught the full view of "the house of Zion and hill of Jerusalem"; Nob therefore is probably Mizpah. Condor (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, January, 1875) identifies Nob with Nebi Samwil, the Arabs mistaking Nob "high place" for Nebi "prophet." Nebi Samwil is so near Gibeon that it must have been the high place visited by Solomon; the view from it is splendid. Traces of the outer court of the tabernacle are yet discoverable, and a curious rock cut approach. (But, See Nob.)

People's Dictionary of the Bible [2]

Mizpah ( Mĭs'Pah ) and Mizpeh ( Miz'Peh ), Watch-Tower. The name of several places in Palestine. 1. On Mount Gilead, also called Mizpeh of Gilead,  Judges 11:29, and elsewhere, probably Ramoth-mizpeh,  Joshua 13:26, and Ramoth-gilead,  1 Kings 4:13, and elsewhere, the place where Laban and Jacob set up a heap of stones as a witness and landmark between them.  Genesis 31:23;  Genesis 31:25;  Genesis 31:48;  Genesis 31:52. Here, also, the Israelites assembled to fight against the Ammonites,  Judges 10:17; and here Jephthah was met by his daughter.  Judges 11:29. Some suppose that this was the place also where the tribes assembled to avenge the great sin committed in Benjamin,  Judges 20:1;  Judges 20:3;  Judges 21:1;  Judges 21:5;  Judges 21:8; but this is more usually applied to the Mizpah in Benjamin. See No. 6. This Mizpah has been identified, with great probability, with Kulat er Rubad on the Wady ʾAjlûn, about ten miles east of the Jordan. The summit commands a wide view, and is in harmony with the name Mizpeh, or "watch-tower." 2. Mizpeh of Moab, where the king of that nation was living when David committed his parents to his care,  1 Samuel 22:3; possibly now Kerak. 3. The land of Mizpeh, in the north of Palestine, the residence of the Hivites,  Joshua 11:3; possibly identical with—4. The valley of Mizpeh,  Joshua 11:3;  Joshua 11:8, whither the confederate hosts were pursued by Joshua; perhaps the modern BukaʾA, the great country of Cœle-Syria, between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon. 5. A city in Judah,  Joshua 15:38; possibly identical with the modern Tell es-Sâfiyeh. This others have identified with Misrephothmaim.  Joshua 11:8. 6. A city in Benjamin,  Joshua 18:26, where Israel assembled.  1 Samuel 7:5-7;  1 Samuel 7:11-12;  1 Samuel 7:16. Here Saul was elected king.  1 Samuel 10:17-21. Asa fortified Mizpah,  1 Kings 15:22;  2 Chronicles 16:6; it was where Gedaliah was assassinated,  2 Kings 25:23;  2 Kings 25:25;  Jeremiah 40:6-15;  Jeremiah 41:1-16; the men of Mizpah joined in rebuilding a par of the wall of Jerusalem.  Nehemiah 3:7;  Nehemiah 3:15;  Nehemiah 3:19. Probably identical with Neby Samwil, standing on a peak about four miles northwest of Jerusalem. Whether the Mizpah of  Hosea 5:1, was in Benjamin or in Gilead is uncertain.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [3]

Miz'pah. Miz'pah and Miz'peh (A Watch-Tower). The name of several places in Palestine.

1. The earliest of all, in order of the narrative, is the heap of stones, piled up by Jacob and Laban,  Genesis 31:48, on Mount Gilead,  Genesis 31:25, to serve both as a witness to the covenant then entered into, and as a landmark of the boundary between them.  Genesis 31:52.

On this natural watch-tower, did the children of Israel assemble for the choice of a leader, to resist the children of Ammon.  Judges 10:17. There, the fatal meeting took place between Jephthah and his daughter, on his return from the war.  Judges 11:34.

It seems most probable that the "Mizpeh-gilead" which is mentioned here, and here only, is the same as the "ham-Mizpah." of the other parts of the narrative; and both are probably identical with the Ramath-mizpeh and Ramoth-gilead, so famous in the later history.

2. A second Mizpeh, on the east of Jordan, was the Mizpeh-moab, where the king of that nation was living, when David committed his parents to his care.  1 Samuel 22:3.

3. A third was "the land of Mizpeh," or more accurately "of Mizpah," the residence of the Hivites, who joined the northern confederacy, against Israel, headed by Jabin, king of Hazor.  Joshua 11:3. No other mention is found of this district in the Bible, unless it be identical with Mizpah, 4 .

4. The valley of Mizpeh, to which the discomfited hosts, of the same confederacy were chased by Joshua,  Joshua 11:8, perhaps identical with the great country of Coele-Syria.

5. Mizpeh, a city of Judah,  Joshua 15:38, in the district of the Shefelah , or maritime lowland.

6. Mizpeh, in Joshua and Samuel; elsewhere Mizpah, a "city" of Benjamin, not far from Jerusalem.  Joshua 18:26;  1 Kings 15:22;  2 Chronicles 16:6;  Nehemiah 3:7.

It was one of the places fortified by Asa, against the incursions of the kings of northern Israel,  1 Kings 15:22;  2 Chronicles 16:6;  Jeremiah 41:10, and after the destruction of Jerusalem , it became the residence of the superintendent, appointed by the king of Babylon,  Jeremiah 40:7; etc., and the scene of his murder, and of the romantic incidents connected , with the name of Ishmael, the son of Nethaniah.

It was one of the three holy cities, which Samuel visited in turn as judge of the people,  1 Samuel 7:6;  1 Samuel 7:16, the other two being Bethel and Gilgal. With the conquest of Jerusalem, and the establishment there of the ark, the sanctity of Mizpah, or at least its reputation, seems to have declined.

From Mizpah, the city or the temple was visible. These conditions are satisfied by the position of Scopus , the broad ridge which forms the continuation, of the Mount of Olives to the north and cast, from which the traveller gains, like Titus, his first view, and takes his last farewell, of the domes, walls and towers of the Holy City.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [4]

The name Mizpah came from a common Hebrew word meaning ‘watchtower’ or ‘watchpost’, and was given to a number of places referred to in the Bible. The earliest mention is to a place that features in the story of Jacob where he and Laban made an agreement not to be treacherous to each other in future. They called the place Mizpah, since God was witness to their agreement, the one who ‘watched’ between them ( Genesis 31:44-50).

In relation to the history of the nation Israel, the most important town that had the name Mizpah was in the central hill country of Palestine. It was one of four administrative and religious centres that Samuel visited on his annual circuit ( 1 Samuel 7:5-12;  1 Samuel 7:16). The town was located in the tribal area of Benjamin and had previously featured in one of the most disastrous events in Benjamin’s early history ( Judges 20:1-7;  Judges 21:1-8). Israel’s first king, Saul, who was from the tribe of Benjamin, was publicly declared king in Mizpah ( 1 Samuel 10:17-24; for map see Benjamin ).

During the period of the divided kingdom, Mizpah became an important defence outpost on Judah’s northern border with Israel ( 1 Kings 15:22). After the destruction of Jerusalem it became the centre from which Gedaliah, the governor appointed by Babylon, administered the scattered remains of the former kingdom ( 2 Kings 25:23;  2 Kings 25:25;  Jeremiah 40:6-16; Jeremiah 41).

Other places in Palestine named Mizpah were near Mount Hermon in the far north ( Joshua 11:3), in Gilead east of Jordan ( Judges 10:17;  Judges 11:11;  Judges 11:29;  Judges 11:34), and in the low foothills west of the central highlands ( Joshua 15:38). There was also a Mizpah in Moab south-east of the Dead Sea ( 1 Samuel 22:3).

Easton's Bible Dictionary [5]

  • A city of Benjamin, "the watch-tower", where the people were accustomed to meet in great national emergencies ( Joshua 18:26;  Judges 20:1,3;  21:1,5;  1 Samuel 7:5-16 ). It has been supposed to be the same as Nob ( 1 Samuel 21:1;  22:9-19 ). It was some 4 miles north-west of Jerusalem, and was situated on the loftiest hill in the neighbourhood, some 600 feet above the plain of Gibeon. This village has the modern name of Neby Samwil, i.e., the prophet Samuel, from a tradition that Samuel's tomb is here. (See Nob .)

    Samuel inaugurated the reformation that characterized his time by convening a great assembly of all Israel at Mizpeh, now the politico-religious centre of the nation. There, in deep humiliation on account of their sins, they renewed their vows and entered again into covenant with the God of their fathers. It was a period of great religious awakening and of revived national life. The Philistines heard of this assembly, and came up against Israel. The Hebrews charged the Philistine host with great fury, and they were totally routed. Samuel commemorated this signal victory by erecting a memorial-stone, which he called "Ebenezer" (q.v.), saying, "Hitherto hath the Lord helped us" (  1 Samuel 7:7-12 ).

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Mizpah'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ebd/m/mizpah.html. 1897.

  • Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [6]

    or MIZPEH, a city of the tribe of Benjamin, situated in a plain, about eighteen miles west of Jerusalem. Here Samuel dwelt; and here he called Israel together, to observe a solemn fast for their sins, and to supplicate God for his assistance against the Philistines; after which they sallied out on their enemies, already discomfited by the thunders of heaven, and gave them a total defeat, 1 Samuel 7. Here, also, Saul was anointed king,  1 Samuel 10:17-25 . It appears that between this and the time of Asa, king of Judah, Mizpeh had suffered probably in some of the intervening wars, as we are told that Asa built it with the stones and timber of Ramah,  1 Kings 15:22 . There was another Mizpeh in Gilead; on the spot where Jacob set up the pillar or heap of stones, to commemorate the covenant there made between him and Laban,  Genesis 31:49 . ( See Gilead . ) There was also a third Mizpeh, in the land of Moab, where David placed his father and mother, while he remained in his retreat at Adullam,  1 Samuel 22:3 . It is to be observed, that Mizpeh implies a beacon or watch tower, a pillar or heap of commemoration; and at all the places bearing this name, it is probable that a single pillar, or a rude pile, was erected as the witness and the record of some particular event. These, subsequently, became altars and places of convocation on public occasions, religious and civil.

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [7]

    (Heb. Mitspah', מַצְפָּה , Genesis 36:49;  Joshua 11:3;  Judges 10:17;  Judges 11:11;  Judges 11:34;  Judges 20:1;  Judges 20:5;  Judges 20:8;  1 Samuel 7:6;  1 Samuel 7:11-12;  1 Samuel 7:16;  1 Samuel 10:17;  1 Kings 15:22;  2 Kings 25:23;  2 Kings 25:25 :  2 Chronicles 16:6;  Nehemiah 3:7;  Nehemiah 3:15;  Nehemiah 3:19;  Jeremiah 40:6-15;  Jeremiah 41:1;  Jeremiah 41:3;  Jeremiah 41:6; Jeremiah 10, 14, 16;  Hosea 5:1; always [except in  Hosea 5:1] with the art. הִמַּצְפָה ; Sept. Μασσηφά ,Vulg. Maspha; but in  Genesis 31:49, Sept. Ὅρασις ,Vulg. omits;  1 Samuel 7:5-13; Vulg. Masphath;  1 Kings 15:22, Sept. Σκοπιά ;  2 Chronicles 16:6, Μασφά ;  Nehemiah 3:19, Μασφέ v.r. Μασφαί ;  Hosea 5:1, Σκοπιά , Speculatio), or Miz'peh (Heb. Mitssehb', מַצְפֶּה ,  Joshua 11:8;  Judges 11:29;  1 Samuel 6:5-7;  1 Samuel 22:3; with the art.  Joshua 15:38;  Joshua 18:26;  2 Chronicles 20:24; Sept. Μασσηφά , but Σκοπιά in  Judges 11:29; Μασσηφάθ in  1 Samuel 22:3; Vulg. Maspha, but Masphe in  Joshua 11:8; Mesphe in  Joshua 18:-26), the name of several places (the Auth. Vers. "Mizpah" in  Genesis 31:49;  1 Kings 15:22;  2 Kings 25:23;  2 Kings 25:25;  2 Chronicles 16:6;  Nehemiah 3:7;  Nehemiah 3:15;  Nehemiah 3:19; Jeremiah 40, 41;  Hosea 5:1; elsewhere "Mizpeh"), signifying properly a beacon or watch-tower (as in  Isaiah 21:8); hence also a lofty place, whence one can see far and wide over the country, whether furnished with a castle or not (as in  2 Chronicles 20:24). (Mizpeh becomes Mizpah "in pause.")

    1. A place in Gilead, so named (in addition to its other names, GALEED and Jegar-Sahadutha both signifying the "heap of witness") in commemoration of the compact formed by Jacob with Laban, who overtook him at this spot on his return to Palestine ( Genesis 31:49, where the word הִמִּצֵּבָה has apparently fallen out of the text by reason of its similarity to the name itself, so that we should read "and he called the obelisk Mizpah" [see Gesenius, Thes. page 1179]. It would seem that the whole of  Genesis 31:49 is the language of Jacob, for it contains a play upon the Heb. [ יַצֶ , Yitseph] basis of the name Mizpeh, and also appeals to Jehovah; whereas Laban spoke Aramsean, and his language is resumed with  Genesis 31:50). This cannot be the Mizpeh of Gilead (see below), for it lay north of Mahanaim, on Jacob's route, which was southward towards the Jabbok (32, 2, 22). We are therefore to look for it in some of the eminences of that vicinity. It probably never became an inhabited locality.

    2. Another place east of Jordan, called Mizpah Of Gilead (Auth. Vers. "Mizpeh"), where Jephthah assumed his victorious command of the assembled Israelites ( Judges 10:17;  Judges 11:11), and where he resided ( Judges 11:34), is probably the same with the RABIATH-MIZPEH of Gad ( Joshua 13:26), and may be identified with RAMATH-GILEAD (See Ramath-Gilead) (q.v.). Eusebius names it as a Levitical city in the tribe of Gad (Onomast. s.v. Μασφά ).

    3. Another place in Gilead, apparently a district inhabited by a branch of the Hivites, at the foot of Mount Hermon ( Joshua 11:3), and so named from a valley gast of Misrephoth-main and opposite Zidon ( Joshua 11:8); possibly the tract immediately west of Jebel Heish (see Keil, Comment. ad loc.). The idolatries practiced in this vicinity are alluded to in  Hosea 5:1 (see Schwarz, Palest. page 60). Pressel (in Herzog's Real- Encyklop. s.v.), ingeniously conjecturing that Mizpah (the fem. Heb. form of the name) is properly the country in general, and Mizpeh (the masc.) an individual place or town, understands in this case the Land to be the entire plain of Paneas or Csesarea Philippi, now called the Ard el Huleh, and the Valley to be that of the eastern source of the Jordan from Jebel Heish. Not much different is the view of Knobel and others in their commentaries, thinking of the country from Hasbeiya southward, and westward from Tell el-Kady, the ancient Dan. They refer in confirmation of their views to Robinson's account (Researches, 3:373) of a Druse village, built on a hill which rises 200 feet above the level of the plain, and commands a noble view of the great basin of the Hlleh; it bears the name of Mutulleh or Metelleh, an Arabic word of the same meaning as Mizpah, and employed to render it in  Genesis 31:49 by Saadias. Comp. Seetzen, Reisen Dur-Ch Syrien (Berl. 1857-59), 1:393 sq.; Ritter, Die Sinai-Halbinsel, Paldstina U. Syrien (Berl. 1850-51), volume 2, part 1, page 1121 sq.

    4. A city of Benjamin ( Joshua 18:26), where the people were wont to convene on national emergencies ( Judges 20:1;  Judges 20:3;  Judges 21:1;  Judges 21:5;  Judges 21:8;  1 Samuel 7:5-16;  1 Samuel 10:17 sq.). It was afterwards fortified by Asa, to protect the borders against the kingdom of Israel ( 1 Kings 15:22;  2 Chronicles 16:6). In later times it became the residence of the governor under the Chaldeeans ( 2 Kings 25:23;  2 Kings 25:25;  Jeremiah 40:6 sq.;  Jeremiah 41:1), and was inhabited after the captivity ( Nehemiah 3:7;  Nehemiah 3:15;  Nehemiah 3:19). In the Jewish traditions it was for some time the residence of the ark (see Jerome, Qu. Hebr. on  1 Samuel 7:2; Reland. Antiq. 1:6); but this is possibly an inference from the expression "before Jehovah" in  Judges 20:1. Josephus frequently mentions it ( Μασφάτη , Ant. 6:2, 1; Μασφαθά , 6:4, 4; 10:9, 2, 4, 5), once identifying it with Ramah ( Μασφά , 8,13,4). From the account in  1 Samuel 7:5-16, it appears to have been near Gibeah, and it could not have been far from Ramah, since king Asa fortified it with materials taken from that place; and that it was situated on an elevated spot is clear from its name. On these grounds Dr. Robinson (Researches, 2:144) inclines to regard the modern village of Neby Samwil ("the prophet Samuel") as the probable site of Mizpah, especially as in  1 Maccabees 3:46 it is described as "over against Jerusalem," implying that it was visible from that city. This place is now a poor village, seated upon the summit of a ridge, about 600 feet above the plain of Gibeon, being the most conspicuous object in all the vicinity. It contains a mosque, now in a state' of decay, which, on the ground of the apparently erroneous identification with Ramah, is regarded by Jews, Christians, and Moslems as the tomb of Samuel (see Schwarz, Palest. page 127).

    The mosque was once a Latin church, built in the form of a cross, upon older foundations, and probably of the time of the Crusaders. There are many traces of former dwellings. The modern hamlet clusters at the eastern side of the mosque. The houses, about twelve in number, are either ancient or composed of ancient materials. Their walls are in places formed of the living rock hewn into shape, and some of the little courts are excavated to the depth of several feet.. There is thus an air of departed greatness and high antiquity about the place, which, added to its commanding situation, gives it an inexpressible charm (Porter, Hand-book, page 216; comp. Tobler, Zwei Biicher Topgraphie von Jerusalem- u. seine Unmgebungen [Berl. 1853,1854], 2:874 sq.). Mr. Williams (in Smith's Dict. of Greek and Roman Geog. s.v.) doubts this location, urging that  Jeremiah 41:5-6 appears to require a position more directly on the great route from Jerusalem to Samaria; but Neby Samwil is exactly on the route by which Johanan overtook the murderer of Gedaliah ( Jeremiah 41:12; comp.  2 Samuel 2:13). He suggests the modern village Shaphat, lying upon the ridge anciently called Scopus, as more likely to have been Mizpah; and Stanley (Sinai And Palestine, page 222) argues for a similar identity on the ground of the common signification of .these latter (i.q. Look-Out). This last place, however, is described by Josephus (Ant. 11:8, 5) in very: different terms from Mizpah (Ut Sup.), and Jerusalem is not visible from Shaphat (for which Dr. Bonar likewise contends, Land of Promise, Append. 8). (See Ramah).

    5. A town in the plains of Judahb ( Joshua 15:38). Eusebius and Jerome identify it with a place which in their time bore the name of Alaspha (Onomast. s.v. Μασφά ), on the borders of Eleutheropolis, northward, on the road to Jerusalem; perhaps the present Tell Es-Safieh (Schwarz, Palest. page 103), the Alba Specula Of the Crusaders (Robinson, Researches, 2:362-367), which was probably the GATH (See Gath) (q.v.) of later Biblical times.

    6. A town of Moab to which David took his parents, lest they might be involved in Saul's persecution of himself ( 1 Samuel 22:3). His placing them there under the protection of the Moabitish king implies that it was the chief city, or royal-residence of the Moabites; and under that view we may, perhaps identify it as an appellative (i.q. The Acropolis or stronghold of Moab) with KIR-MOAB (See Kir-Moab) (q.v.) or Kerak.

    Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [8]

    Miz´pah. The word signifies a watch-tower, and is the name of several towns and places in lofty situations, whether furnished with a watch-tower or not.

    Mizpah, 1

    A town or city in Gilead . The place originated in the heap of stones set up by Laban, and to which he gave his name . Some confound this with the Mizpeh of Gilead in; but it is better to distinguish them [[[Mizpeh Of Gilead]] 3].

    Mizpah, 2

    A city of Benjamin, where the people had used to convene (;;;;; , sq.). It was afterwards fortified by Asa, to protect the borders against the kingdom of Israel . In later times it became the residence of the governor under the Chaldeans (, sq.; comp.;; ). Its position is nowhere mentioned in Scripture or by Josephus; but it could not have been far from Ramah, since King Asa fortified it with materials taken from that place; and that it was situated on an elevated spot is clear from its name. Neby Samwil, a poor village seated upon the summit of an elevated ridge about four and a half miles N.N.W. from Jerusalem, is supposed to correspond with the position of Mizpah.