Amaziah

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Fausset's Bible Dictionary [1]

1. Son of Joash; on his accession to the Jewish throne punished his father's murderers, but not their children ( Deuteronomy 24:16); a merciful trait of character, which it is implied other kings had not. He had reigned jointly with his father at least one year before Joash's death; for  2 Kings 13:10 compared with  2 Kings 14:1 proves he reigned in the 39th year of Jonah of Judah;  2 Chronicles 24:1 shows that Joash of Judah reigned 40 years; therefore Amaziah must have been reigning one year before Joash's death, The reason comes out in that incidental way which precludes the idea of forgery, and confirms the truth of the history. In  2 Chronicles 24:23;  2 Chronicles 24:25 we read: "the host of Syria came up against him (Joash) ... to Judah and Jerusalem, and destroyed all the princes; ... and when they were departed (For They Left Him In Great Diseases) his own servants conspired against him for the blood of the sons of Jehoiada the priest, and slew him on his bed."

The "great diseases" under which Joash labored, at the time of the Syrian invasion, were no doubt the cause of Amaziah his son being admitted to a share in the government. Blunt well observes how circuitously we arrive at the conclusion, not by the book of Kings alone nor Chronicles alone; either might be read alone without suspicion of such a latent congruity. He slew of Edom in the Valley of Salt (S. of the Dead Sea, the scene of David's general's victory:  2 Samuel 8:13; Psalm 60 title;  1 Kings 11:15-16;  1 Chronicles 18:12)  1 Chronicles 18:10;  1 Chronicles 18:000, and his forces threw 10,000 captives from the rocks, and he took Selah or Petra their capital, which he named Jokteel (the reward of God) after a Jewish city ( Joshua 15:38). Then he showed that, whereas he partly did "right in the sight of the Lord," it was "not like David his father, with a perfect heart" ( 2 Chronicles 25:2;  2 Kings 14:3).

"He brought the gods of Seir to be his gods and bowed down himself before them and burned incense unto them." The Lord's prophet reproved him: "Why hast thou sought after the gods which could not deliver their own people out of thine hand?" "Art thou made of the king's counsel? forbear; why shouldest thou be smitten?" was the king's reply; for God had determined to destroy him, and therefore gave him up to judicial hardening ( Romans 1:28). Already he had provoked Israel by sending back 100,000 Israelite soldiers whom he had hired for 100 talents of silver, but whom, as being estranged from God ( 1 Corinthians 15:33), God forbade him to take with him (compare  2 Chronicles 19:2;  2 Chronicles 20:37); God assuring him that He could give him much more than the 100 talents which he thereby forfeited. The Israelites in returning fell upon the cities of Judah from Samaria to Bethheron.

The God who gave him the Edomite capital in compensation for his loss of money could have given amends for the Israelite depredations, if he had not lost His favor. Refusing advice from God's prophet ( Proverbs 12:1), Amaziah "took advice" of bad counselors, and, irritated at the Israelite depredations, Amaziah challenged Joash, who by the parable of "the thistle (or rather thorn bush) and cedar" warned him not to overrate his strength through pride in his Edomite victories, as though the thorn bush were to think itself a match for the cedar, and to meddle to his own hurt. Routed at Bethshemesh, he was taken by Joash to Jerusalem, the wall of which Joash broke down from the gate of Ephraim to the grainer gate 400 cubits, facing Israel's frontier, besides taking the vessels of God's house, with Obed Edom, and the king's treasures and hostages.

Jerusalem, according to Josephus, yielded so quickly, as Joash threatened otherwise to slay Amaziah. Amaziah survived Joash 15 years, and then was slain by conspirators at Lachish, whither he had fled. He reigned from 837 B.C to 809.

2. Priest of the golden calf at Bethel, under Jeroboam II. Fearing that his craft whereby he had his wealth was in danger, he informed the king: "Amos hath conspired against thee in the midst of the house of Israel; the land is not able to bear all his words, for thus Amos saith, Jeroboam shall die by the sword and Israel ... be led away captive." Also he said unto Amos; "O thou seer ... get thee away into Judah and there eat bread (He Judges Of Amos By His Own Mercenary Motives) . But prophesy not again any more in Bethel, for it is the king's chapel and ... court."

Therefore the Lord doomed his wife to harlotry, his sons and daughters to the sword, and himself to "die in a polluted land" ( Amos 7:10-17). So far from seeking prophecy as a breadmaking business, Amos replies he gave up his own mode of livelihood to obey the Lord's call at all costs. Political expediency in all ages is made the pretext for dishonoring God and persecuting His servants ( John 11:48-50;  Acts 17:6-7;  Acts 19:25-27;  Acts 24:5). Probably Amaziah met his doom in Pul's invasion; God is not anxious to vindicate His word, "the majesty of Scripture does not lower itself to linger on baser persons" (Pusey): the criminal's sentence implies its execution, whether recorded or not.

3.  1 Chronicles 4:34.

4.  1 Chronicles 6:45.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [2]

one of the kings of Judah,  2 Chronicles 24:27 , son of Joash, succeeded his father A.M. 3165, B.C. 839. He was twenty-five years of age when he began to reign, and reigned twenty-nine years at Jerusalem. "He did good in the sight of the Lord, but not with a perfect heart." When settled in his kingdom, he put to death the murderers of his father, but avoided a barbarous practice then too common, to destroy also their children; in which he had respect to the precept, "The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the fathers; every man shall be put to death for his own sin,"

 Deuteronomy 24:16;  2 Chronicles 25:1-3 .

In the muster which Amaziah made of his people, he found three hundred thousand men able to bear arms. He hired, besides, one hundred thousand men of Israel; for which he paid the king of Israel a hundred talents, about thirty-four thousand pounds English. His design was to employ these troops against Edom, which had revolted from Judah, in the reign of Joram about fifty-four years before,  2 Kings 8:20 . But a prophet of the Lord came to him and said, "O king, let not the army of Israel go with thee; for the Lord is not with Israel." Amaziah, hereupon, sent back those troops; and they returning, strongly irritated against Amaziah, dispersed themselves over the cities of Judah, from Bethoron to Samaria, killed three thousand men, and carried off a great booty, to make themselves amends for the loss of the plunder of Edom. Amaziah, with his own forces gave battle to the Edomites in the Valley of Salt, and defeated them; but having thus punished Edom, and taken their idols, he adored them as his own deities. This provoked the Lord, who permitted Amaziah to be so blinded as to believe himself invincible. He therefore sent to defy the king of Israel, saying, "Come, let us look one another in the face." The motive of this challenge was probably to oblige Joash, king of Israel, to repair the ravages which his troops had committed on their return homewards. Joash answered him by the fable of the cedar of Lebanon, and the thistle trodden down by a beast,  2 Kings 14:8-9 . But Amaziah, deaf to these reasonings, advanced to Bethshemesh, and was defeated and taken prisoner there, by Joash, who carried him to Jerusalem. Joash ordered the demolition of four hundred cubits of the city wall, carried to Samaria all the gold and silver, the rich vessels of the house of God, the treasuries of the royal palace, and the sons of those among his own people who had been hostages there. Amaziah reigned after this, fifteen or sixteen years at Jerusalem, but returned not to the Lord. He endeavoured to escape from a conspiracy to Lachish; but was assassinated. He was buried with his ancestors in the city of David, and Uzziah, or Azariah, his son, about sixteen years of age, succeeded him.

Holman Bible Dictionary [3]

 1 Chronicles 4:34 2 1 Chronicles 6:45 3 Amos 7:10-17

4. Ninth king of Judah, the son of Joash and father of Uzziah (797-767 B.C.). He was 25 years old when he ascended the throne. He speedily avenged the murder of his father, who had been killed by court servants. Amaziah was uncommonly merciful in his avenging, as he only murdered the guilty servants, not the servants' children ( 2 Kings 14:5-6 ).

Among Amaziah's accomplishments, he conscripted an army for Judah, composed of all men age 20 and above. He also hired mercenaries from Israel, but declined to use them at the advice of a “man of God” ( 1 Chronicles 25:7 ). Amaziah led his army to Seir, where he easily defeated the Edomites, making them again subject to Judah. Yet, he took Edomite idols back to Jerusalem and worshiped them. He then refused to listen to the rebuke and the forecast of doom brought by God's prophet ( 2 Chronicles 25:11-16 ).

Encouraged by his victory in Edom, Amaziah challenged Joash; king of Israel; to battle. Though Joash tried to avoid a conflict, Amaziah persisted and was defeated at the hands of Israel. The Temple and royal palace were plundered, the wall of Jerusalem was pierced, and Amaziah was taken prisoner. Amaziah survived Joash by fifteen years. Because of a conspiracy against him he fled to Lachish but was murdered there. See: Judah, Kings of; Joash; Uzziah; Jehoaddin (his mother).

Ronald E. Bishop

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [4]

After the murder of his father Joash, Amaziah became king of Judah (796 BC;  2 Kings 12:20-21;  2 Kings 14:1-5). Determined to regain control of Edom (cf.  2 Kings 8:20), he planned to hire soldiers from Israel to help him. On advice from a prophet, he changed his mind and sent the hired soldiers home. He then fought the battle using Judean soldiers alone and won a great victory ( 2 Chronicles 25:5-13). Against the advice of a prophet, he took some of the idols he had captured from the Edomites and set them up as gods in his palace. In doing so he guaranteed his downfall ( 2 Chronicles 25:14-16). Swollen with arrogance and ambition, Amaziah then attacked Israel, in spite of being warned of the consequences. His country was defeated and Jerusalem plundered ( 2 Chronicles 25:17-24). Later he was assassinated by some of his own people ( 2 Chronicles 25:25-28).

Another Amaziah comes from the same general era. He was a priest who lived in Bethel during the reign of Jeroboam II of Israel. He opposed the preaching of the prophet Amos, and sent a message to the king accusing Amos of treason. When the king ignored the accusation, Amaziah tried to persuade Amos to return to Judah ( Amos 7:10-13). Amos responded with an announcement of judgment on the false priest and his family ( Amos 7:14-17).

Smith's Bible Dictionary [5]

Amazi'ah. (The Strength Of The Lord).

1. Son of Joash, and eighth king of Judah, reigned B.C. 837-809. He succeeded to the throne at the age of 25, on the murder of his father, and punished the murderers. In order to restore his kingdom to the greatness of Jehoshaphat's days, he made war on the Edomites, defeated them in the Valley of Salt, south of the Dead Sea, and took their capital, Selah or Petra, to which he gave the name of Jokteel, that is, "God-Subdued".

Flushed with his success, he challenged Joash king of Israel to battle, but was completely defeated, and himself was taken prisoner and conveyed by Joash to Jerusalem, which opened its gates to the conqueror. Amaziah lived 15 years after the death of Joash; and in the 29th year of his reign was murdered by conspirators at Lachish, whither he had retired from Jerusalem for safety.  2 Chronicles 25:27.

2. A descendant of Simeon  1 Chronicles 4:34.

3. A Levite.  1 Chronicles 6:45.

4. Priest of the golden calf at Bethel who endeavored to drive the prophet Amos from Israel into Judah.  Amos 7:11-12;  Amos 7:14.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [6]

AMAZIAH . 1 . Son of Jehoash of Judah. He came to the throne after the assassination of his father. It is recorded in his favour (  2 Kings 4:6 ) that although he put the murderers of his father to death he spared their children something unheard of up to that time, we infer. Our sources know of a successful campaign of his against Edom, and an unsuccessful one against Israel. In this he seems to have been the aggressor; and after refusing to hear the advice of Jehoash, whom he had challenged to a trial of strength, he had the mortification of seeing his own capital plundered. The conspiracy by which he perished may have been prompted by his conduct in this war. In the matter of religion he receives qualified praise from the author of Kings (  2 Kings 14:3 f.), while the Chronicler accuses him of gross apostasy (  2 Chronicles 25:14 ff.). 2 . The priest at Bethel who opposed the prophet Amos (  Amos 7:10 ff.). 3 . A Simeonite (  1 Chronicles 4:34 ). 4 . A Merarite (  1 Chronicles 6:45 ).

H. P. Smith.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [7]

1. Eighth king of Judah, son of Joash, began to reign B. C. 835, and reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. He did well in the sight of the Lord, but not with a perfect heart. Having established himself in his throne and slain the murderers of his father, he mustered a host of 300,000 men of Judah, and hired 100,000 men of Israel, for a war upon Edom. These hired forces he reluctantly dismissed at the command of God, who gave him the victory without their aid. But this did not prevent him from carrying home with him the idols of Edom, and setting them up to be his gods. For this defiance of Jehovah, he was threatened with destruction by a prophet of the Lord; and soon after, went headlong into war with Israel, in which he was defeated and humbled. Fifteen years after, he was slain by conspirators, after flying to Lachish to escape them,  2 Kings 14:1-20   2 Chronicles 25:1-28

2. A priest of the golden calf at Bethel, who denounced the prophet Amos to Jeroboam, and sought to banish him into Judah for his fidelity,  Amos 7:10-17 .

People's Dictionary of the Bible [8]

Amaziah ( Ăm-A-Z Î'Ah ), Whom Jehovah Strengthens. 1. The son and successor of Jehoash, or Joash, king of Judah. He was 25 years old at his accession, and he reigned 29 years, 838-809 b.c. His conduct was, at first, unexceptionable; but he afterwards declined from God's law, and brought misfortune and judgment upon himself and his kingdom. The history does not tell us that he repented; for the consequences of his idolatry still pursued him. His own subjects conspired against him, and, when he fled to Lachish, slew him there. He was succeeded by his son Azariah, or Uzziah.  2 Kings 14:1-21;  2 Chronicles 25:2. A Simeonite.  1 Chronicles 4:34. 3. A Levite.  1 Chronicles 6:45. 4. An idolatrous priest of the golden calf at Bethel, in the reign of Jeroboam II.  Amos 7:10-17.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [9]

1. Son of Jehoash, or Joash, king of Judah, and who succeeded to the throne: he reigned 29 years, B.C. 839-810. He walked well at the commencement of his reign. He made war on the Edomites; 10,000 were slain, and 10,000 cast down from the top of the rock. But he brought back the gods of the children of Seir, and bowed down to them, whereby he fell under God's displeasure. He provoked a war with the king of Israel but was defeated, the treasures of Jerusalem were taken, and part of the city wall broken down. He was slain at Lachish whither he had fled from a conspiracy.  2 Kings 14:1-23;   2 Chronicles 25:1-28 .

2. Descendant of Simeon.  1 Chronicles 4:34 .

3. Son of Hilkiah, a descendant of Merari.  1 Chronicles 6:45 .

4. Israelite who was priest of the idol set up in Bethel.  Amos 7:10-14 .

Easton's Bible Dictionary [10]

  • The father of Joshah, one of the Simeonite chiefs in the time of Hezekiah ( 1 Chronicles 4:34 ).

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Amaziah'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ebd/a/amaziah.html. 1897.

  • International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [11]

    am - a - zı̄´a ( אמציה , 'ămacyāh , אמציהוּ , 'ămacyāhū , "Yahweh is mighty"; 2 Ki 14:1-20; 2 Ch 25). Son of Jehoash, and tenth king of Judah. Amaziah had a peaceable accession at the age of 25. A depleted treasury, a despoiled palace and temple, and a discouraged people were among the consequences of his father's war with Hazael, king of Syria. When settled on the throne, Amaziah brought to justice the men who had assassinated his father. Amaziah verbal citation of  Deuteronomy 24:16 in   2 Kings 14:6 , forbidding the punishment of children for a father's offense, shows that the laws of this book were then known, and were recognized as authoritative, and, in theory, as governing the nation. His accession may be dated circa 812 (some put later).

    1. The Edomite War

    The young king's plan for the rehabilitation of his people was the restoration of the kingdom's military prestige, so severely lowered in his father's reign. A militia army, composed of all the young men above 20 years of age, was first organized and placed upon a war footing ( 2 Chronicles 25:5; the number given, 300,000, is not a reliable one). Even this not being considered a large enough force to effect the project, 100 talents of silver were sent to engage mercenary troops for the expedition from Israel. When these came, a man of God strongly dissuaded the king from relying on them ( 2 Chronicles 25:7 ). When this was communicated to the soldiers, and they were sent back unemployed, it roused them to "fierce anger" ( 2 Chronicles 25:10 ).

    2. Its Occasion

    Amaziah's purpose in making these extensive preparations for war, in a time of profound peace, is clear to the Southeast of Judah lay the Edomite state, with its capital at Petra. For many years Edom had been subject to Jehoshaphat, and a Hebrew "deputy" had governed it ( 1 Kings 22:47 ). In the reign of his son and successor, Jehoram, a confederacy of Philistines, Arabians and Edomites took Libnah and made a raid on Jerusalem. A band of these penetrated the palace, which they plundered, abducted some women, and murdered all the young princes but the youngest ( 2 Chronicles 21:17;  2 Chronicles 22:1 ). The public commotion and distress caused by such an event may be seen reflected in the short oracle of the prophet Obadiah, uttered against Edom, if, with some, Obadiah's date is put thus early

    3. The Victory in the Valley of Salt

    From that time "Edom ... made a king over themselves" ( 2 Chronicles 21:8 ), and for fifty years following were practically independent. It was this blot on Jerusalem and the good name of Judah that Amaziah determined to wipe out. The army of retaliation went forward, and after a battle in the Valley of Salt, south of the Dead Sea, in which they were the victors, moved on to Petra. This city lies in a hollow, shut in by mountains, and approached only by a narrow ravine, through which a stream of water flows. Amaziah took it "by storm" (such is Ewald's rendering of "by war," in  2 Kings 14:7 ). Great execution was done, many of the captives being thrown from the rock, the face of which is now covered with rock-cut tombs of the Greek-Roman age.

    4. Apostasy and Its Punishment

    The campaign was thus entirely successful, but had evil results. Flushed with victory, Amaziah brought back the gods of Edom, and paid them worship. For this act of apostasy, he was warned of approaching destruction ( 2 Chronicles 25:14-17 ). Disquieting news soon came relating to the conduct of the troops sent back to Samaria. From Beth-horon in the south to the border of the northern state they had looted the villages and killed some of the country people who had attempted to defend their property ( 2 Chronicles 25:13 ). To Amaziah's demand for reparation, Jehoash's answer was the contemptuous one of the well-known parable of the Thistle and the Cedar.

    5. Battle of Beth-Shemesh

    War was now inevitable. The kings "looked one another in the face," in the valley of Beth-shemesh, where there is a level space, suitable to the movements of infantry. Judah was utterly routed, and the king himself taken prisoner. There being no treasures in the lately despoiled capital, Jehoash contented himself with taking hostages for future good behavior, and with breaking down 400 cubits of the wall of Jerusalem at the Northwest corner of the defense ( 2 Kings 14:13 ,  2 Kings 14:14;  2 Chronicles 25:22-24 ).

    6. Closing Years and Tragical End

    Amaziah's career as a soldier was now closed. He outlived Jehoash of Israel "fifteen years" ( 2 Kings 14:17 ). His later years were spent in seclusion and dread, and had a tragical ending. The reason for his unpopularity is not far to seek. The responsibility for the war with Jehoash is by the inspired writer placed upon the shoulders of Amaziah ( 2 Kings 14:9-11 ). It was he who "would not hear." The quarrel between the kings was one which it was not beyond the power of diplomacy to remedy, but no brotherly attempt to heal the breach was made by either king. When the results of the war appeared, it could not be but that the author of the war should be called upon to answer for them. So deep was his disgrace and so profound the sense of national humiliation, that a party in the state determined on Amaziah's removal, so soon as there was another to take his place. The age of majority among the Hebrew kings was 16, and when Amaziah's son was of this age, the conspiracy against his life grew so strong and open that he fled to Lachish. Here he was followed and killed; his body being insultingly carried to Jerusalem on horses, and not conveyed in a litter or coffin ( 2 Kings 14:19 ,  2 Kings 14:20;  2 Chronicles 25:27 ,  2 Chronicles 25:28 ). He was 54 years old and had reigned for 29 years. The Chronicler ( 2 Chronicles 26:1 ) hardly conceals the popular rejoicings at the exchange of sovereigns, when Uzziah became king.

    In  2 Chronicles 25:28 is a copyist's error by which we read "in the city of Judah," instead of "in the city of David," as in the corresponding passage in Kings. The singular postscript to the record of Amaziah in   2 Kings 14:22 is intended to mark the fact that while the port of Elath on the Red Sea fell before the arms, in turn, of Amaziah and of his son Uzziah, it was the latter who restored it to Judah, as a part of its territory. Amaziah is mentioned in the royal genealogy of   1 Chronicles 3:12 , but not in that of Mt 1. There is a leap here from Jehoram to Uzziah, Ahaziah, Jehoash and Amaziah being omitted.

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [12]

    (Hebrew Amatsyah', אֲמִצְיָה , Strengthened by Jehovah,  2 Kings 12:21;  2 Kings 13:12;  2 Kings 14:8;  2 Kings 15:1;  1 Chronicles 4:34;  1 Chronicles 6:45;  Amos 7:10;  Amos 7:12;  Amos 7:14; elsewhere in the prolonged form Amatsya'Hu, אֲמִצְיָהוּ ; Sept. Ἀμασίας , but Μαεσσίας in  1 Chronicles 6:45), the name of four men.

    1. A Levite, son of Hilkiah and father of Hashabiah, of the ancestry of Ethan the Merarite ( 1 Chronicles 6:45), B.C. considerably ante 1014.

    2. The son and successor of Joash (by Jehoaddan, a female of Jerusalem), and the ninth king on the separate throne of Judah; he was twenty-five years old at his accession, and reigned twenty-nine years, B.C. 837-808 ( 2 Kings 14:1-2;  2 Chronicles 25:1). His reign was marked, in general, by piety as well as energy, but was not without its faults ( 2 Kings 14:3-4;  2 Chronicles 25:2). He commenced his sovereignty by punishing the murderers of his father; and it is mentioned that he respected the law of Moses by not including the children in the doom of their parents, which seems to show that a contrary practice had previously existed ( 2 Kings 14:5-7;  2 Chronicles 25:3-5). The principal event of Amaziah's reign was his attempt to reimpose upon the Edomites the yoke of Judah, which they had cast off in the time of Jehoram ( 2 Kings 8:20; comp.  1 Kings 22:48). The strength of Edom is evinced by the fact that Amaziah considered the unaided power of his own kingdom, although stated to have consisted of 300,000 troops, unequal to this: undertaking, and therefore hired an auxiliary force of 100,000 men from the king of Israel for 100 talents of silver ( 2 Chronicles 25:5-6). This is the first example of a mercenary army that occurs in the history of the Jews. It did not, however, render any other service than that of giving Amaziah an opportunity of manifesting that he knew his true place in the Hebrew Constitution, as the viceroy and vassal of the King Jehovah. A prophet commanded him, in the name of the Lord, to send back the auxiliaries. on the ground that the state of alienation from God in which the kingdom of Israel lay rendered such assistance not only useless, but dangerous. The king obeyed this seemingly hard command, and sent the men home, although by doing so he not only lost their services, but the 100 talents, which had been already paid, and incurred the resentment of the Israelites, who were naturally exasperated at the indignity shown to them ( 2 Chronicles 25:7-10;  2 Chronicles 25:13). This exasperation they indicated by plundering the towns and destroying the people on their homeward march (Kitto's Daily Bible Illustr. in loc.). The obedience of Amaziah was rewarded by a great victory over the Edomites ( 2 Chronicles 25:14-16), ten thousand of whom were slain in battle, and ten thousand more savagely destroyed by being hurled down from the high cliffs of their native mountains ( 2 Chronicles 25:11-12). He even took the city of Petra (q.v.) by assault, and changed its name from Selah to Joktheel ( 2 Kings 14:7). But the Edomites afterward were avenged; for among the goods which fell to the conqueror were some of their idols, which, although impotent to deliver their own worshippers, Amaziah betook himself to worship (Withof, De A Masia Deos Edom. Secum Abducente, Ling. 1768). This proved his ruin ( 2 Chronicles 25:14-16). Puffed up by his late victories, he thought also of reducing the ten tribes under his dominion, and sent a challenge to the rival kingdom to meet him in a pitched battle. After a scornful reply, he was defeated by King Joash of Israel, who carried him a prisoner to Jerusalem, which, according to Josephus (Ant. 9, 9, 3), opened its gates to the conqueror under a threat that otherwise he would put Amaziah to death a statement evidently made conjecturally to explain the fact that the city was taken apparently without resistance ( 2 Kings 14:13). Joash broke down a great part of the city wall on the side toward the Israelitish frontier, plundered the city, and even laid his hands upon the sacred things of the temple. He, however, left Amaziah on the throne, but not without taking hostages for his good behavior ( 2 Kings 14:8-14;  2 Chronicles 25:17-24), B.C. cir. 824. The disasters which Amaziah's infatuation had brought upon Judah probably occasioned the conspiracy in which he lost his life, although a space of fifteen years intervened ( 2 Kings 14:17). On receiving intelligence of this conspiracy he hastened to throw himself into the fortress of Lachish; but he was pursued and slain by the conspirators, who brought back his body "upon horses" to Jerusalem for interment in the royal sepulcher ( 2 Kings 14:19-20;  2 Chronicles 25:27-28). His name, for some reason, is omitted in our Savior's genealogy ( Matthew 1:8; comp.  1 Chronicles 3:12). (See Kingdom Of Judah).

    3. The priest of the golden calves at Bethel, who, in the time of Jeroboam II, complained to the king of Amos's prophecies of coming evil, and urged the prophet himself to withdraw into the kingdom of Judah and prophesy there; for which he was threatened with severe family degradation in the approaching captivity of the northern kingdom ( Amos 7:10-17), B.C. cir. 790.

    4. The father of Joshah, which latter was one of the Simeonite chiefs who expelled the Amalekites from the valley of Gedor in the time of Hezekiah ( 1 Chronicles 4:34). B.C. cir. 712.

    Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [13]

    Amaziah, 1

    Amazi´ah (whom Jehovah, strengthens, i.e. God-strengthened), son of Joash, and eighth king of Judah. He was 25 years old when he began to reign, and he reigned 29 years—from B.C. 838 to B.C. 809. He commenced his sovereignty by punishing the murderers of his father; and it is mentioned that he respected the law of Moses, by not including the children in the doom of their parents, which seems to show that a contrary practice had previously existed. In the twelfth year of his reign Amaziah attempted to re-impose upon the Edomites the yoke of Judah, which they had cast off in the time of Jehoram. The strength of Edom is evinced by the fact that Amaziah considered the unaided strength of his own kingdom unequal to this undertaking, and therefore hired an auxiliary force of 100,000 men from the king of Israel for 100,000 talents of silver. This is the first example of a mercenary army that occurs in the history of the Jews. It did not, however, render any other service than that of giving Amaziah an opportunity of manifesting that he knew his true place in the Hebrew constitution, as the viceroy and vassal of the king Jehovah [[[King]. A]] prophet commanded him, in the name of the Lord, to send back the auxiliaries, on the ground that the state of alienation from God in which the kingdom of Israel lay, rendered such assistance not only useless but dangerous. The king obeyed this seemingly hard command, and sent the men home, although by doing so he lost not only their services and the 100,000 talents, which had been already paid, but incurred the resentment of the Israelites, who were naturally exasperated at the indignity shown to them.

    But the obedience of Amaziah was rewarded by a great victory over the Edomites, ten thousand of whom were slain in battle, and ten thousand more were savagely destroyed by being hurled down from the high cliffs of their native mountains. But the Edomites afterwards were avenged; for among the goods which fell to the conqueror were some of their idols, which, although impotent to deliver their own worshippers, Amaziah betook himself to worship. This proved his ruin. Puffed up by his late victories, he thought also of reducing the ten tribes under his dominion. In this attempt he was defeated by king Joash of Israel, who carried him a prisoner to Jerusalem. Joash broke down great part of the city wall, plundered the city, and even laid his hands upon the sacred things of the temple. He, however, left Amaziah on the throne, but not without taking hostages for his good behavior. The disasters which Amaziah's infatuation had brought upon Judah probably occasioned the conspiracy in which he lost his life. On receiving intelligence of this conspiracy he hastened to throw himself into the fortress of Lachish; but he was pursued and slain by the conspirators, who brought back his body 'upon horses' to Jerusalem for interment in the royal sepulchre (2 Kings 14; 2 Chronicles 25).

    Amaziah, 2

    Amaziah, the priest of the golden calves at Bethel, in the time of Jeroboam II. He complained to the king of Amos's prophecies of coming evil, and urged the prophet himself to withdraw into the kingdom of Judah and prophesy there ( Amos 7:10-17).

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