From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [1]

1: Δοκιμή (Strong'S #1382 — Noun Feminine — dokime — dok-ee-may' )

for which see Experience , No. 2, is rendered "trial" in  2—Corinthians 8:2 , AV (RV, "proof").

2: Πεῖρα (Strong'S #3984 — Noun Feminine — peira — pi'-rah )

"a making trial, an experiment," is used with lambano, "to receive or take," in  Hebrews 11:29 , rendered "assaying," and  Hebrews 11:36 , in the sense of "having experience of" (akin to peirao, "to assay, to try"), "had trial." In the Sept.,  Deuteronomy 28:56 .

3: Πειρασμός (Strong'S #3986 — Noun Masculine — peirasmos — pi-ras-mos' )

akin to No. 2, is rendered "trials" in  Acts 20:19 , RV. See Temptation.

4: Πύρωσις (Strong'S #4451 — Noun Feminine — purosis — poo'-ro-sis )

akin to puroo, "to set on fire," signifies (a) "a burning;" (b) "a refining," metaphorically in  1—Peter 4:12 , "fiery trial," or rather "trial by fire," referring to the refining of gold ( 1—Peter 1:7 ). See Burning.

 1—Peter 1:7Proof

Webster's Dictionary [2]

(1): ( n.) Any effort or exertion of strength for the purpose of ascertaining what can be done or effected.

(2): ( n.) The act of testing by experience; proof; test.

(3): ( n.) Examination by a test; experiment, as in chemistry, metallurgy, etc.

(4): ( n.) The state of being tried or tempted; exposure to suffering that tests strength, patience, faith, or the like; affliction or temptation that exercises and proves the graces or virtues of men.

(5): ( n.) The act of trying or testing in any manner.

(6): ( n.) The formal examination of the matter in issue in a cause before a competent tribunal; the mode of determining a question of fact in a court of law; the examination, in legal form, of the facts in issue in a cause pending before a competent tribunal, for the purpose of determining such issue.

(7): ( n.) That which tries or afflicts; that which harasses; that which tries the character or principles; that which tempts to evil; as, his child's conduct was a sore trial.

King James Dictionary [3]

TRI'AL, n. from try. Any effort or exertion of strength for the purpose of ascertaining its effect, or what can be done. A man tries to lift a stone, and on trial finds he is not able. A team attempts to draw a load, and after unsuccessful trial, the attempt is relinquished.

1. Examination by a test experiment as in chimistry and metallurgy. 2. Experiment act of examining by experience. In gardening and agriculture, we learn by trial what land will produce and often, repeated trials are necessary. 3. Experience suffering that puts strength, patience of faith to the test afflictions or temptations that exercise and prove the graces or virtues of men.

Others had trial of cruel mockings and scourgings.  Hebrews 11

4. In law, the examination of a cause in controversy between parties, before a proper tribunal. Trials are or criminal. Trial in causes, may be by record or inspection it may be by witnesses and jury, or by the court. By the laws of England and of the United States, trial by jury, in criminal cases, is held sacred. No criminal can be legally deprived of that privilege. 5. Temptation test of virtue.

Every station is exposed to some trials.

6. State of being tried.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [4]

(See Judges ; Council; Law; Pilate ) In  Acts 19:38, margin, "the court days are now being kept," i.e. the court is now sitting, "and there are deputies." The assembly of citizens then sitting formed the conventus, out of which the "deputy" or proconsul ( Anthupatos ) selected "judices" or assessors ( Anthupatoi ); thus the court consisted of the proconsul and his assessors.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [5]

Trial. Information on the subject of trials, under the Jewish law will be found, in the articles on Judges , and Sanhedrin , and also in Jesus Christ .

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [6]

TRIAL . See Temptation.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [7]

See Suffering, Temptation, Trial-at-Law.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [8]

a term used in Scripture only in the sense of testing (usually some form of

בָּחִן , Δοκιμή or Δοκίμιον ; but once מִסָּה ,  Job 9:23, elsewhere "temptation" [q.v. ]; and so Πεῖρα ,  Hebrews 11:36; Πύρωσις , "fiery trial,"  1 Peter 4:12, lit. Burning, as elsewhere rendered), to denote painful circumstances into which persons are brought by divine Providence with a view to illustrate the perfections of God, bring to light the real character of those who are thus tried, and by the influence of temporal suffering, which shows the transitory nature and uncertain tenure of all earthly advantages, to promote their eternal and spiritual interests. (See Tempt).

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [9]