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Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

This is the Authorized Versionrendering of παιδαγωγός in  Galatians 3:24 f. ( 1 Corinthians 4:15, ‘instructer’), but in the Revised Versionit has given place to ‘tutor’ (q.v.[Note: .v. quod vide, which see.]) in both passages. The latter rendering is scarcely less inadequate than the former. The παιδαγωγός is to be distinguished from the παιδονόμος, who is one of the official guardians of public instruction in a Greek city, and from the παιδευτής, the educator who trains the youth and corrects his foolishness ( Romans 2:20), and from the διδάσκαλος, the teacher who actually imparts instruction ( Acts 13:1,  1 Corinthians 12:28, and elsewhere). His office in the old Greek system of education was to accompany the children of the family to and from their schools, the school of the music-master and the school of the physical trainer. He carried the books and instruments, the lyre and writing materials of his pupils. He was responsible for their guardianship and protection out of school hours, and was expected to protect them, not only from danger to life and limb, but also from the perils of evil companionship. His pupils remained under his charge till they reached the age of puberty, when they were supposed to be able to care for themselves. His status was that of a slave for the most part, but the most respected and trustworthy of the household; and care was taken that he should be correct in his language and should not tell stories to his charges likely to corrupt or deprave their morals. He appears frequently on the Greek stage both in tragedy and in comedy. Only on rare occasions was he admitted to the presence of his master’s daughters. Among the Romans the paedagogus attended on girls as well as boys, but Roman girls were allowed to appear out of doors as Greek girls were not. He also gave home instruction to the child, and as he was a Greek-speaking slave, he taught him Greek, which in the days of the Empire was thought a good foundation for learning. The Roman paedagogi, however, under the degeneration of pagan manners in the Empire, soon got a bad name.

In the Galatian reference St. Paul represents the Law as exercising a severe but salutary moral influence calculated to make those who were under it feel the need of something better, and to bring them to Christ. As Lightfoot says (Galatians, ad loc.), ‘as well in his inferior rank, as in his recognised duty of enforcing discipline, the paedagogus was a fit emblem of the Mosaic law.’ But the context of the passage, dwelling upon the close tutelage and supervision of an exacting Law, points not only to the satisfaction, but also to the liberty and devotion as of sons, to be found in Christ.

The Fathers liked to think of Christ Himself, the Incarnate Word, as the παιδαγωγός. One of the works of Clement of Alexandria is so designated. The παιδαγωγός is ‘God in the form of man undefiled, minister to the Father’s will, the unsullied image of God’ (i. 2). He is ὁ πάντα φιλάνθρωπος, the True Friend of Man (i. 1), and He trains His children both by chastisement and by love to beauty of character.

Literature.-W. M. Ramsay, Historical Commentary on Galatians, 1899, p. 381 ff.; J. B. Lightfoot, Galatians5, 1876, p. 148 f.; W. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities2, 1875, article‘Paedagogus.’

Thomas Nicol.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [2]

 1 Corinthians 4:15   Galatians 3:24,25 , in Greek Paidagogos; a sort of attendant who took the charge of young children, taught them the rudiments of knowledge, and at a suitable age conducted them to and from school. Thus the law was the pedagogue of the nation, and a length conducting them through its types and prophecies to Christ. When a Jew came to a believing knowledge of Christ, this office of the law ceased.

Little is known respecting the schools of the Jews, nor when and how far they took the place of domestic instruction,  Deuteronomy 6:7-9   11:18-20 . It is probable that elementary education was under the charge of the minister of religion, as well as the instruction of those of riper years. At the time of Christ, it would appear that the Jews in general were able at least to read and write.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [3]

παιδαγωγός. This is literally 'child conductor,' pedagogue: originally a slave who took his master's children to school. The law was a schoolmaster to the Jews (not to the Gentiles: Paul said we ,  Galatians 3:24; in contrast to ye in  Galatians 3:26 ) until Christ came; but any led to Christ were no longer under that schoolmaster.  Galatians 3:24,25 : cf.  Romans 6:14 .

King James Dictionary [4]

SCHOOL'MASTER, n. See Master.

1. The man who presides over and teaches a school a teacher, instructor or preceptor of a school. Applied now only or chiefly to the teachers of primary school.

Adrian VI. was sometime schoolmaster to Charles V.

2. He or that which disciplines, instructs and leads.

The law was our schoolmaster to bring us to Christ.  Galatians 3 .

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [5]

 Galatians 3:24 (a) It is said that the schoolmaster was the servant who led the student child to the school or the class where he was to be taught. So the law convicts us of our need of a Saviour, and leads us to come to Him for pardon, forgiveness and eternal life.

Webster's Dictionary [6]

(1): ( n.) The man who presides over and teaches a school; a male teacher of a school.

(2): ( n.) One who, or that which, disciplines and directs.

Holman Bible Dictionary [7]

 Galatians 3:24-25Custodian

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [8]

 Galatians 3:24,25Instructor

Easton's Bible Dictionary [9]

 Galatians 3:24,25

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [10]

skool´mas - ter  :   Galatians 3:24 f the King James Version reads: "The law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith. But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster." "Schoolmaster" is a translation of παιδαγωγός , paidagōgós , literally, "child-leader." This paidagōgos was not a teacher but a slave, to whom in wealthy families the general oversight of a boy was committed. It was his duty to accompany his charge to and from school, never to lose sight of him in public, to prevent association with objectionable companions, to inculcate moral lessons at every opportunity, etc. He was a familiar figure in the streets, and the (sour) "face of paidagōgos " and "to follow one like a paidagōgos " were proverbial expressions. Naturally, to the average boy the paidagōgos must have represented the incorporation of everything objectionable. Hence, Paul's figure may be paraphrased: "The law was a paidagōgos , necessary but irksome, to direct us until the time of Christ. Then was the time of our spiritual coming-of-age, so that the control of the paidagōgos ceased." The word paidagōgos was taken over into Aramaic at an early date, and Paul's language; which is hardly that of a mere adult observer, suggests that he had had personal experience with the institution. Wealthy and intensely orthodox Jewish parents living in a Gentile city may well have adopted such a precaution for the protection of their children.

No English word renders paidagōgos adequately. "Schoolmaster" is quite wrong, but Revised Version's "tutor" (compare   1 Corinthians 4:15 ) is little better in modern English.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [11]

is the inexact rendering in  Galatians 3:24-25 of Παιδαγωγός (" instructor,"  1 Corinthians 4:15), which does not signify a Poedagogue in the modern sense, but a person, usually a slave or freedman, to whose care the boys of a family were anciently committed at the age of six or seven years, who watched over their physical and moral training and accompanied them to the public schools and elsewhere, or provided them with teachers ( Παιδομαθεῖς , Quintilian, 1, 11), but did not himself instruct them. See Smith, Dict. Of Class. Antig. s.v. "Paedagogue."