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American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [1]

This word represents two distinct people, who, in accordance with the original Hebrew, might have been more properly called Sebaeans and Shebaeans.

1. The first denotes the inhabitants of the country called  Genesis 10:7 , their ancestor is said to be a son of Cush, the progenitor of the Ethiopians. In  Isaiah 43:3 and   Psalm 72:10 , Seba is mentioned as a distant and wealthy country; in the former passage, it is connected with Egypt and Ethiopia; and Meroe was one of the most important commercial cities of interior Africa. These Sabeans are described by Herodotus as men of uncommon size. Compare  Isaiah 45:14 . A branch of this family, it is thought, located themselves near the head of the Persian Gulf; and the Sabeans mentioned in  Job 1:15 were probably Cushites. See Cush and Raamah .

2. The inhabitants of the country called  Genesis 10:28   1 Chronicles 1:22 .

The queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon,  1 Kings 10:1-29   2 Chronicles 9:1-31   Matthew 12:42 , and made him presents of gold, ivory, and costly spices, was probably the mistress of this region; indeed, the Sabeans were celebrated, on account of their important commerce in these very products, among the Greeks also,  Job 6:19   Isaiah 60:6   Jeremiah 6:20   Ezekiel 27:22   38:13   Psalm 72:10,15   Joel 3:8 . The tradition of this visit of the queen of Sheba to Solomon has maintained itself among the Arabs, who call her Balkis, and affirm that she became the wife of Solomon.

Besides the Joktanite Sabaeans, two others of the same name are mentioned in the Bible. 1. A son of Jokshan, and grandson of Abraham and Keturah,  Genesis 10:28   2 . A grandson of Cush. It is possible that these descendants of the Ethiopian Sheba may have had their residence in Africa; but the question of these two Shebas is obscure and difficult to determine. The Sebaeans and Shebaeans are both mentioned in the same prophecy,  Psalm 72:10 , as coming to lay their offerings at the feet of Christ.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [2]

or "men of stature,"  Isaiah 45:14 . These men were probably the Sabeans of Arabia Felix, or of Asia. They submitted to Cyrus. The Sabeans of Arabia were descended from Saba; but as there are several of this name, who were all heads of peoples, or of tribes, we must distinguish several kinds of Sabeans.

1. Those Sabeans who seized the flocks of   Job 1:15 , were, probably, a people of Arabia Deserta, about Bozra; or, perhaps, a flying troop of Sabeans which infested that country.

2. Sabeans, descendants from Sheba, son of Cush.   Genesis 10:7 , are probably of Arabia Felix: they were famous for spices; the poets gave them the epithet of soft and effeminate, and say they were governed by women:

Medis, levibusque Sabaeis

Imperat hic sexus.

[This sex governs the Medes, and the gentle Sabeans.] Several are of opinion, that from them came the queen of Sheba,   1 Kings 10:1-2; and that of these Sabeans the psalmist speaks,  Psalms 72:10 , "The kings of Arabia and Sheba shall give gifts;" and  Jeremiah 6:20 : "What are the perfumes of Sheba to me?" and  Isaiah 60:6 : "All who come from Sheba shall offer gold and perfumes."

3. Sabeans, sons of Shebah, son of Reumah.   Genesis 10:7 , probably dwelt in Arabia Felix. Probably it is of these Ezekiel speaks,  Ezekiel 27:22 , who came with their merchandise to the fairs of Tyre: and  Joel 3:8 : "I will deliver up your children to the tribe of Judah, who shall sell them to the Sabeans, a very distant nation."

4. Sabeans, descendants from Joktan, may very well be those mentioned by   Ezekiel 27:23 : "Saba, Assur, and Chelmad, thy dealers." They are thought to have inhabited beyond the Euphrates; whence they are connected with Asshur and Chilmad,  Genesis 10:28;  1 Chronicles 1:22 .

5. Sabeans are also placed in Africa, in the isle of Meroe. Josephus brings the queen of Sheba from thence, and pretends that it had the name of Sheba, or Saba, before that of Meroe.

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [3]

The Scriptures in various parts speak of those men. We meet with them  Job 1:15. And it is very probable that by the men of Sheba is meant the same. ( Psalms 72:10;  1 Kings 10:1-2) In the writings of Isaiah they are spoken of as men of stature. ( Isaiah 45:14) But who they are, or to what purpose designed, there is no mention. It is a blessed thought however, what is said,  Psalms 72:1-20 throughout, concerning the ultimate extension and prosperity of the Redeemer's kingdom "when the kings of Sheba and of Seba shall offer gifts; yea, when all kings shall fall down before him, all nations shall serve him." ( Psalms 72:10-11) Oh, what wonders will by and by break out in the earth, when from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same Jesus's name shall be great among the Gentiles, and in every place incense shall be offered unto his name and a pure offering! ( Malachi 1:11)

Morrish Bible Dictionary [4]

There are four persons who have been regarded as progenitors of the Sabeans.

1. Seba, son of Cush.   Genesis 10:7 .

2. Sheba, grandson of Cush.   Genesis 10:7 .

3. Sheba, descendant of Joktan.   Genesis 10:28 .

4. Sheba, son of Jokshan.   Genesis 25:3 .

The first two are descendants of Ham, and the last two descendants of Shem. For their localities see SEBA and SHEBA. Some were marauders who swept away the oxen and asses of Job.  Job 1:15 . In  Isaiah 45:14 they were travelling merchants. In   Joel 3:8 they are represented as a people 'far off,' to whom Judah will sell their enemies. These passages may not all refer to the same people. In   Ezekiel 23:42 the chethib reads 'drunkards,' as in the margin of the A.V. and the text of the R.V.

People's Dictionary of the Bible [5]

Sabeans ( Sa-Bç'Anz ). 1. Descendants of Seba.  Isaiah 45:14. It should be simply "people of Seba," son of Cush. 2. In  Joel 3:8 the descendants of Sheba, son of Joktan, are meant. Possibly a third tribe is spoken of in  Job 1:15. The translation "Sabeans" in  Ezekiel 23:42 is incorrect: read "drunkards," as in the margin and In the R. V.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [6]

 Genesis 10:7 Isaiah 43:3 Isaiah 45:14 Psalm 72:10 Ezekiel 23:42 Job 1:15

Smith's Bible Dictionary [7]

Sabe'ans. See Sheba .

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [8]