From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [1]

A — 1: Δοκιμάζω (Strong'S #1381 — Verb — dokimazo — dok-im-ad'-zo )

"to test, prove," with the expectation of approving, is translated "to prove" in  Luke 14:19;  Romans 12:2;  1—Corinthians 3:13 , RV (AV, "shall try"); 11:28, RV (AV, "examine");  2—Corinthians 8:8,22;  13:5;  Galatians 6:4;  Ephesians 5:10;  1—Thessalonians 2:4 (2nd part), RV (AV, "trieth"); 5:21;   1—Timothy 3:10; in some mss.  Hebrews 3:9 (the most authentic have the noun dokimasia, "a proving");   1—Peter 1:7 , RV (AV, "tried");  1—John 4:1 , RV (AV, "try"). See Approve.

A — 2: Ἀποδείκνυμι (Strong'S #584 — Verb — apodeiknumi — ap-od-ike'-noo-mee )

"to show forth," signifies "to prove" in  Acts 25:7 . See Approve , No. 3.

A — 3: Παρίστανω (Strong'S #3936 — Verb — paristemi — par-is'-tay-mee, par-is-tan'-o )

"to present," signifies "to prove" in  Acts 24:13 . See Commend , No. 4.

A — 4: Πειράζω (Strong'S #3985 — Verb — peirazo — pi-rad'-zo )

"to try," either in the sense of attempting, e.g.,  Acts 16:7 , or of testing, is rendered "to prove" in  John 6:6 . See Examine , Tempt.

A — 5: Συμβιβάζω (Strong'S #4822 — Verb — sumbibazo — soom-bib-ad'-zo )

"to join together," signifies "to prove" in  Acts 9:22 . See Compacted , No. 2.

A — 6: Συνίστημι (Strong'S #4921 — Verb — sunistemi | sunistano — soon-is-tah'-o, soon-is-tah'-an'-o, soon-is-tah'-ay-mee )

"to commend, to prove," is translated "I prove (myself a transgressor)" in  Galatians 2:18 (Av, "I make"). See Commend.

B — 1: Πειρασμός (Strong'S #3986 — Noun Masculine — peirasmos — pi-ras-mos' )

(a) "a trying, testing," (b) "a temptation," is used in sense (a) in  1—Peter 4:12 , with the preposition pros, "towards" or "with a view to," RV, "to prove" (AV, "to try"), lit., "for a testing." See Temptation.

 Luke 10:36 Hebrews 2:2 Romans 3:9Charge

King James Dictionary [2]

PROVE, prov. L. probo.

1. To try to ascertain some unknown quality or truth by an experiment, or by a test or standard. Thus we prove the strength of gunpowder by experiment we prove the strength or solidity of cannon by experiment. We prove the contents of a vessel by comparing it with a standard measure. 2. To evince, establish or ascertain as truth, reality or fact, by testimony or other evidence. The plaintiff in a suit, must prove the truth of his declaration the prosecutor must prove his charges against the accused. 3. To evince truth by argument, induction or reasoning to deduce certain conclusions from propositions that are true or admitted. If it is admitted that every immoral act is dishonorable to a rational being, and that dueling is an immoral act then it is proved by necessary inference, that dueling is dishonorable to a rational being. 4. To ascertain the genuineness or validity of to verify as, to prove a will. 5. To experience to try by suffering or encountering to gain certain knowledge by the operation of something on ourselves, or by some act of our own.

Let him in arms the power of Turnus prove.

6. In arithmetic, to show, evince or ascertain the correctness of any operation or result. Thus in subtraction, if the difference between two numbers, added to the lesser number, makes a sum equal to the greater, the correctness of the subtraction is proved. In other words, if the sum of the remainder and of the subtrahend, is equal to the minuend, the operation of subtraction is proved to be correct. 7. To try to examine.

Prove your own selves.  2 Corinthians 13 .

8. Men prove God, when by their provocations they put his patience to trial,  Psalms 95 or when by obedience they make trial how much he will countenance such conduct,  Malachi 3

PROVE, To make trial to essay.

The sons prepare--

To prove by arms whose fate it was to reign.

1. To be found or to have its qualities ascertained by experience or trial as, a plant or medicine proves salutary. 2. To be ascertained by the event or something subsequent as the report proves to be true, or proves to be false. 3. To be found true or correct by the result. 4. To make certain to show to evince.

This argument proves how erroneous is the common opinion.

5. To succeed.

If the experiment proved not--

Not in use.

Webster's Dictionary [3]

(1): ( v. i.) To be found by experience, trial, or result; to turn out to be; as, a medicine proves salutary; the report proves false.

(2): ( v. i.) To make trial; to essay.

(3): ( v. t.) To test, evince, ascertain, or verify, as the correctness of any operation or result; thus, in subtraction, if the difference between two numbers, added to the lesser number, makes a sum equal to the greater, the correctness of the subtraction is proved.

(4): ( v. t.) To gain experience of the good or evil of; to know by trial; to experience; to suffer.

(5): ( v. t.) To ascertain or establish the genuineness or validity of; to verify; as, to prove a will.

(6): ( v. i.) To succeed; to turn out as expected.

(7): ( v. t.) To take a trial impression of; to take a proof of; as, to prove a page.

(8): ( v. t.) To evince, establish, or ascertain, as truth, reality, or fact, by argument, testimony, or other evidence.

(9): ( v. t.) To try or to ascertain by an experiment, or by a test or standard; to test; as, to prove the strength of gunpowder or of ordnance; to prove the contents of a vessel by a standard measure.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [4]

prōōv ( בּחן , bāḥan , נסה , nāṣāh  ; δοκιμάζω , dokimázō , πειράζω , peirázō ): Means (1) to test or try; (2) to establish, demonstrate; (3) to find by experience. It is for the most part in the first (original) sense that the word is found in Scripture. In the Old Testament it is most frequently the translation of nāṣāh , primarily "to lift," hence, to weigh (  Genesis 42:15 ,  Genesis 42:16 , etc.). God is said to "prove" His people, i.e. to test or try them for their good ( Genesis 22:1;  Exodus 15:25;  Deuteronomy 8:16 , etc.). The Psalmist prays that God may prove him ( Psalm 26:2 ). The word is frequently rendered "tempt." See Tempt . The word bāḥan , primarily "to try by heat," has a similar meaning ( Psalm 17:3 , the heart, like metal, purified from dross; compare  Job 23:10;  Psalm 7:9;  Malachi 3:2 , etc.). In the New Testament the word most frequently rendered "prove" (sometimes "try") is dokimazō ( Luke 14:19;  Romans 12:2;  2 Corinthians 8:8 ,  2 Corinthians 8:22;  2 Corinthians 13:5;  Ephesians 5:10;  1 Thessalonians 5:21 ). Peirazō , "to tempt," "to prove," used in both a good and a bad sense, frequently translated "tempt" (which see), is rendered "prove" in  John 6:6 , "This he said to prove him." Both Greek words occur frequently in Apocrypha (Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus). the Revised Version (British and American) has "prove" for "tempt" ( Genesis 22:1 ); for, "make" ( Job 24:25;  Galatians 2:18 ); for "manifest" ( Ecclesiastes 3:18 ); for "examine" ( 1 Corinthians 11:28 ); for "try" ( 1 Corinthians 3:13;  1 John 4:1 ), etc.