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Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [1]


the most westerly kingdom of Europe, a part of the great Spanish peninsula, lies in 36 55'42 8'N. lat., and 6 15'-9 3'0 W. long. Its greatest length from north to south is 368 miles, and its average breadth from east to west about 100 miles. The kingdom of Portugal proper is bounded by the Atlantic on the S. and W., and by Spain on the N. and E. Its distinctive subdivisions, with their several areas and populations, are given in the following table:

The insular appendages of Portugal are-the Azores, 1996 square miles, pop. (1871) 258,933; Madeira, etc., 315 square miles, pop. (1871) 118,379. Total home territories, 36,813, and the population (1871), 4,367,882. The colonial possessions of Portugal are-in Africa: Cape Verd Islands, 1630.02 square miles; pop. 67,347. Senegambia, 35,437.50 square miles; pop. 8500. Islands of San-Thome and Principe, off Guinea, 448.56 square miles; pop. (1868) 19,295. Angola, Benguela. 200,602.50 square miles; pop. 2,000,000. Mozambique and dependencies, 283,500 square miles; pop. 300,000. In Asia: Goa, Salcete, 1440.6 square miles; pop. 474,234. Damao, Diu, 94.08 square miles; pop. 53,283. In the Indian Archipelago, 2877 square miles; pop. 850,300. In China: Macao, 11.76 square miles; pop. (1866) 100,000. Total of colonies. 526,041.48 square miles; pop. 3,872,959.

Christianity was established in this country at the same time as in Spain, from which it is only politically separated: it therefore had its share of the misfortunes which, at the time of the great barbarian invasions, under the Alans, Sneves, Westgoths, and afterwards under the Arabs, came over the Christian Church. The weight of these calamities was made a little lighter for Portugal by the circumstance that, partly through the influence of the Roman bishops Anacletus and Anlicetus, partly through the decrees of Constantine, which made metropolitan seats of the chief cities of the provinces, the diocesan system had been developed at an early period. In the country now called Portugal, in the province Galicia, Bracara, now Braga, was the metropolis. We learn from Garcia Louisa, in his remarks on the Council of Luco, that the bishops of Astorica, Portucale (Porto), Colinmbria (Coimbra), Egitania (Idanha), Eminium (Agueda, in Estremadura), Lameco (Lamego, on the Douro), Loco (Lugo, on the sources of the Minho), Tria (El Padron, in Galicia), Veseo (Viseu), Auiria (Orense), Tude (Tuy), Magneto or Britonia (Mondonedo), and Dumio, near Braga, were suffragans of Bracara. At the Council of Ltuco, A.D. 569, a second metropolis was established at Luco, but it remained dependent on Bracara. Veseo, Colombia, Egitania, Lameco, and Maagneto were then suffragan seats of Bracara, and Tria, Autria, Tude, Astorica, and Britonia formed the ecclesiastical province of Luco: it ceased to exist when the domination of the Sueves, in 585, was overthrown by the Westgoths. In Lusitania, Merida, on the Guadiana, was the metropolis; the ecclesiastical province included Niumantia. Pax Tulia, Ossonoba, Olysippo, Caurio, Avila, and Elbora. Calixtus II transferred the metropolitan dignity to the bishop of Compostella. In the 7th century some changes appear to have taken place. The beginning of the 8th century saw the downfall of the Westgothic empire, and the invasion of the Arabs, invited by the sons of the expelled king, and by their uncle, Oppas, archbishop of Hispalis, for the purpose of driving from the throne the newly elected king Roderick.

The land between the Douro and the Pyrenees, a small portion of the peninsula, remained under Christian rule. Ferdinand I (1038-65) wrenched from the Arabs Lamego, Veseo, Coimbra, etc. Though the Arabs had allowed the inhabitants the free exercise of their religion, many of them passed over to Mohammedanism, and thus, by degrees, bishoprics and monasteries disappeared. Even Bracara lost her metropolitan dignity; and when. in 1083, Alphonso VI took Toledo, which under the Alabian rule had continued still during two centuries to be the residence of an archbishop, there was scarcely a Christian to be found in the city. In consideration of these circumstances, and with the consent of pope John VIII, Oetum, in Galicia, was made a metropolis, including the bishoprics Anca, Legio, Astorica, Salmantica, Catlrio, Coimbria, Lamego, Veseo, Portucale, Bracara, Tude, Anria, Tria, Luco, Britonia, and Caesaraugunsta. Oviedo was the city of the bishops inpartibus infidelime; but the former suffragans of Taracona did not acknowledge the archbishop of Ovetum but that of Narbonne as their metropolitan.

The dignity of the metropolitan of Ovetum swas extinguished when Alphonso VI took Toledo and Castile, the old ecclesiastical provinces of Toledo, Braga, and Tarragona being then established anew by Gregory VII and Urban II. The long time during which the Spanish peninsula had stood under Mohammedan rule, Christianity being obliterated everywhere, justified. in the ideas of those times, the measures taken by the Church for the purpose of securing the rule and purity of the Roman Catholic religion. The complete expulsion of Mohammedans and Jews seemed commanded by the circumstances, and it was executed with pitiless energy. In 1536 a tribunal of Inquisition was established in Lisbon, and special severity was displayed against the Jews accused of practicing their old worship under the garb of Christianity. They formed, under the name of New-Christians (q.v.), a suspicious class, and many of them, in 1506, had been victims to the hatred and prejudices of the multitude. The power of the Church increased rapidly, and smith it the pride of some of the bishops, for there soon arose between the crown and the clergy difficulties greatly detrimental to the influence of the latter, as it gave occasion to the people to get an insight into and speak freely of its sad condition, as well as of that of the Roman court. By the laws of 1822, 26 every naturalized foreigner was granted civil and political rights regardless of his religion; they authorized every kind of private worship, and prohibited every religious persecution. The Catholic clergy were treated with the greatest distrust, and their riches were seized upon to fill the treasure of the state.

It was not until 1843 that the government was reconciled with the pope, and the wounds of the Roman Church were long in healing even after that. The Portuguese Church is (since 1741) under the special jurisdiction of a patriarch, who is always a cardinal, and who is, to some extent, independent of Rome. Portugal is divided into three dioceses, which are presided over by the cardinal-patriarch of Lisbon. His suffragan seats are Castello-Branco, Guarda, Lamego, Leiria, and Portalegre. There are several colonial bishops: at Madeira, the Azores, and other islands. Besides the patriarchate or archbishopric of Lisbon, there is the archbishopric of Braga who is primate of the kingdom, and whose suffragan seats are Porto, Viseu, Coimbra, Bragana-Miranda, Aveiro, and Pinhel; and the archbishopric of Evora, with the bishoprics Elvas, Beja, and Algarve. The archbishops have the rank of a marquis, the bishops of a count. They all belong to the grandeza, or higher nobility. The bishops are appointed by the king, and confirmed by the pope. No bull can be published without the agreement of the king. The number of clergy holding cures is given at 18,000. The total number of parishes is 4086. The monasteries are dissolved in 1834, but a few religious establishments still exist. At the time of the dissolution Portugal was possessed of 360 monasteries, with 5760 monks, and 126 nunneries, with 2725 nuns.

There are six orders of knighthood, viz. the Order of Christ, founded in 1319; St. Benedict of Avis; the Tower and Sword, founded in 1459, and reorganized in 1808; Our Lady of Villa Vio sa, established in 1819; and the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, which was separated in 1802 from that of Malta. In addition to these, there is one civil-service order, founded in 1288. Portugal stands below the other countries of Europe in regard to education. There is one university at Coimbra; there are military, naval, trade, and navigation schools, and many classical and higher schools; and ill 1861 there were 1788 public schools, with 79,172 pupils, uncontrolled by the Church. There is an Academy of Sciences and a School of Arts at Lisbon, the former of which has a library of 50,000 volumes. The other public libraries are the Central Library, with 300,000 volumes; various royal libraries, as that of Lisbon, with 86,000 badly preserved volumes and 8000 MSS.; that at the Necessidades Palace, with 28,000 volumes; and that at the Ajuda Palace, with 20,000 volumes; and the University Library at Coimbra, with 45,000 volumes. The administration of the management of general education is conducted by a superior council of education at Coimbra, under the supervision of the ministry of the Home Department. See Sch fer, Gesch. von Portugal (Hamb. 1836, 3 vols. 8vo); Schubert, Handbuch der Staatenkunde rcn Europa, 1, 3 sq.; Busk, Hist. of Portugal (1831); Dunham, Hist. of Portugal (1832); Andersen (H. C.), In Spain, and a Visit to Portugal (1870); Chambers's Cyclop. s.v.

The Nuttall Encyclopedia [2]

A country as large as Ireland, bounded on the S. and W. by the Atlantic, on the N. and E. by Spain, from which at different places it is separated by the rivers Minho, Douro, Tagus, and Guadiana; consists of the Atlantic slopes of the great peninsular tableland, and has a moist, warm atmosphere, heavy rains, and frequent fogs. The above rivers and the Mondego traverse it; their valleys are fertile, the mountain slopes covered with forests. In the N. the oak abounds, in the centre the chestnut, in the S. cork-trees and palms. Agriculture, carried on with primitive implements, is the chief industry. Indian corn, wheat, and in the S. rice, are extensively grown; the vine yields the most valuable crops, but in the N. it is giving place to tobacco. There are a few textile factories. The largest export is wine; the others, cork, copper ore, and onions, which are sent to Great Britain, Brazil, and France. The principal imports, iron, textiles, and grain. The capital is Lisbon, on the Tagus, one of the finest towns in the world. Oporto, the chief manufacturing centre, and second city for commerce, is at the mouth of the Douro. Braga was once the capital. Coimbra, on the Mondego, is the rainiest place in Europe. There are good roads between the chief towns, 1200 m. of railway and 3000 m. of telegraph. The people are a mixed race, showing traces of Arab, Berber, and Negro blood, with a predominance of northern strains. They are courteous and gentle; the peasantry hard-working and thrifty. Roman Catholic is the national faith, but they are tolerant of other religions. The language is closely akin to Spanish. Education is backward. The Government is a limited monarchy, there being two houses of Parliament—Peers and Deputies. The Azores and Madeira are part of the kingdom; there are colonies in Africa and Asia, in which slavery was abolished only in 1878. The 14th and 15th centuries saw the zenith of Portugal's fortunes. At that time, in strict alliance with England, she raised herself by her enterprise to the foremost maritime and commercial power of Europe; her navigators founded Brazil, and colonised India. Diaz in 1487 discovered and Vasco da Gama in 1497 doubled the Cape of Good Hope. In 1520 Magellan sailed round the world; but in the 16th century the extensive emigration, the expulsion of the Jews, the introduction of the Inquisition, and the spread of Jesuit oppression, led to a speedy downfall. For a time she was annexed to Spain. Regaining her independence, she threw herself under the protection of England, her traditional friend, during the Napoleonic struggle. She is now an inconsiderable power, commercially thriving, politically restless, financially unsound.