From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Easton's Bible Dictionary [1]

  • Penitential mourning, by the Israelites on the day of atonement ( Leviticus 23:27;  Acts 27:9 ); under Samuel's ministry ( 1 Samuel 7:6 ); predicted in Zechariah ( Zechariah 12:10,11 ); in many of the psalms (51, etc.).

    Mourning was expressed, (1) by weeping ( Genesis 35:8 , marg.;  Luke 7:38 , etc.); (2) by loud lamentation ( Ruth 1:9;  1 Samuel 6:19;  2 Samuel 3:31 ); (3) by the disfigurement of the person, as rending the clothes ( Genesis 37:29,34;  Matthew 26:65 ), wearing sackcloth ( Genesis 37:34;  Psalm 35:13 ), sprinkling dust or ashes on the person ( 2 Samuel 13:19;  Jeremiah 6:26;  Job 2:12 ), shaving the head and plucking out the hair of the head or beard ( Leviticus 10:6;  Job 1:20 ), neglect of the person or the removal of ornaments ( Exodus 33:4;  Deuteronomy 21:12,13;  2 Samuel 14:2;  19:24;  Matthew 6:16,17 ), fasting ( 2 Samuel 1:12 ), covering the upper lip ( Leviticus 13:45;  Micah 3:7 ), cutting the flesh ( Jeremiah 16:6,7 ), and sitting in silence ( Judges 20:26;  2 Samuel 12:16;  13:31;  Job 1:20 ).

    In the later times we find a class of mourners who could be hired to give by their loud lamentation the external tokens of sorrow ( 2 Chronicles 35:25;  Jeremiah 9:17;  Matthew 9:23 ).

    The period of mourning for the dead varied. For Jacob it was seventy days ( Genesis 50:3 ); for Aaron ( Numbers 20:29 ) and Moses ( Deuteronomy 34:8 ) thirty days; and for Saul only seven days ( 1 Samuel 31:13 ). In  2 Samuel 3:31-35 , we have a description of the great mourning for the death of Abner.

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Mourn'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. 1897.

  • Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [2]

    'Âbal ( אָבַל , Strong'S #56), “to mourn, lament.” This word is common to both ancient and modern Hebrew. Found in the Hebrew Old Testament 39 times, 'âbal is used in the simple, active verbal form primarily in poetry, and usually in a figurative sense. When it is used of mourning for the dead in a literal sense, the word is found in prose sections and in the reflexive form, indicating action back on the subject. It first occurs in Gen. 37:34: “And Jacob … mourned for his son many days.”

    When used in the figurative sense, 'âbal expresses “mourning” by gates (Isa. 3:26), by the land (Isa. 24:4), and by pastures (Amos 1:2). In addition to mourning for the dead, “mourning” may be over Jerusalem (Isa. 66:10), over sin (Ezra 10:6), or over God’s judgment (Exod. 33:4). One may pretend to be a mourner (2 Sam. 14:2) simply by putting on mourning clothes.

    King James Dictionary [3]

    Mourn, L maereo.

    1. To express grief or sorrow to grieve to be sorrowful. Mourning may be expressed by weeping or audible sounds, or by sobs, sighs or inward silent grief.

    Abraham came to mourn for Sarah and to weep.  Genesis 23

    Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted.  Matthew 5

    2. To wear the customary habit of sorrow.

    We mourn in black.

    Grieve for an hour perhaps, then mourn a year.

    Mourn To grieve for to lament. But there is an ellipsis of for, the verb not being transitive. When we say, we mourn a friend or a child, the real sense and complete phrase is, we mourn for a friend, or mourn for the loss of a friend. "He mourn'd his rival's success," that is,he mourned for his rival's success.

    1. To utter in a sorrowful manner.

    The love lorn nightingale

    Nightly to thee her sad song mourneth well.

    Webster's Dictionary [4]

    (1): ( v. i.) To express or to feel grief or sorrow; to grieve; to be sorrowful; to lament; to be in a state of grief or sadness.

    (2): ( v. t.) To utter in a mournful manner or voice.

    (3): ( v. i.) To wear the customary garb of a mourner.

    (4): ( v. t.) To grieve for; to lament; to deplore; to bemoan; to bewail.

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [5]

    Bibliography Information McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Mourn'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.