From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Smith's Bible Dictionary [1]

Mandrakes. (Hebrew, dudraim ) Mandrakes are mentioned in  Genesis 30:14;  Genesis 30:16, and in  Song of Solomon 7:13. The mandrake, Atropa mandragora , is closely allied to the well-known deadly nightshade, Atropa bellndonna , and to the tomato, and belongs to the order Solanaceae , or potato family. It grows in Palestine and Mesopotamia.

(It grows low, like lettuce, which its leaves somewhat resemble, except that they are of a dark green. The flowers are purple, and the root is usually forked. Its fruit, when ripe, (early in May), is about the size of a small apple, 24 inches in diameter, ruddy or yellow, and of a most agreeable odor, (to Orientals more than to Europeans), and an equally agreeable taste.

The Arabs call it "Devil'S Apple", from its power to excite voluptuousness. Dr. Richardson, ("Lectures on Alcohol," 1881), tried some experiments with wine made of the root of mandrake, and found it narcotic, causing sleep, so that the ancients used it as an anaesthetic. Used in small quantities like opium, it excites the nerves, and is a stimulant. - Editor).

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [2]

( Song of Song of Solomon 7:13) The original name is Dudaim, and is only mentioned in the instance of Reuben finding them in the field, and bringing them to his mother, (See  Genesis 30:14-18) and in this place of the Canticles. There doth not seem to be any determined fruit meant by those mandrakes; and some have concluded, that they were flowers, such as the jessamine or violet; and the language of the church in saying, that they gave a smell, seems to favour this opinion. Some authors, however, have described peculiar qualities to the mandrakes as fruits, not unlike, in their effects on our nature, to what is said of the flocks of Laban, ( Genesis 30:37, etc.) and have concluded, that it was on this account that Rachel desired them. This, however, is but conjecture. The church describing them as fragrant, and perhaps having an allusion in that view to the fragrancy of higher objects, may be supposed to convey the idea of the sweet-smelling odour of Jesus, and the fruits and graces of his Spirit.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [3]

The Αtropa Mandragore , of the order Solanaceae , allied to the deadly nightshade ( Αtropa Belladonna ); a stupefying narcotic with broad dark green leaves, flowers purple, and green apples which become pale yellow when ripe, with a tuberous bifid (forked) root. Still found ripe in wheat harvest (May) on the lower parts of Lebanon and Hermon ( Genesis 30:14). The apples produce dizziness and exhilaration. The ancients believed them calculated to produce fecundity. Their Hebrew name, Duwdaim , "love apples," agrees with their being used as aphrodisiacs to conciliate love; Rachel had this superstitious notion ( Genesis 30:14-17). The odor is too strong to be agreeable to Europeans, but Orientals value strong-smelling things; Dioscorides calls the apples "sweet-scented."  Song of Solomon 7:13, "the mandrakes give a smell." The root was fancied to resemble man, and to form a potent magical spell, and to emit a human groan on being torn from the ground!

People's Dictionary of the Bible [4]

Mandrakes (Heb. Love Plants ). Modern Bible scholars apply this name to a member of the potato family ( Mandragora Officinalis ). This is a stemless plant with a disk of leaves almost as long, but not nearly as broad, as those of the garden rhubarb, which it somewhat resembles, except in its blossoms. The odor of the plant seems to be enjoyed by Orientals,  Song of Solomon 7:13, and by Some Occidentals. Many strange superstitions are connected with this plant, and the idea of Rachel's time still prevails that conception is ensured by eating the fruit of this plant.  Genesis 30:14-16.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [5]

Hebrew Dudaim,  Genesis 30:14-16 Song of   Song of Solomon 7:13 , a plant to which was attributed, probably without reason, the power of rendering barren women fruitful. According to most of the ancient versions, it was the Atropa Mandragora of Linnaeus, a plant of the genus Belladonna, with a root like a beet, white and reddish blossoms, and fragrant yellow apples, which ripen from May to July. But this opinion is uncertain.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [6]

dudaim. Some strong-smelling plant found in the fields of Palestine. Many opinions have been expressed as to what herb is referred to. It is possibly the Mandragora officinarum, called the 'love apple,' a relative to the 'apple of Sodom.' The Atropa mandragora is another species.  Genesis 30:14-16;  Song of Solomon 7:13 .

Easton's Bible Dictionary [7]

 Genesis 30:14-16  Song of Solomon 7:13 Dudaim   Genesis 30:14-16

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [8]

man´drāks ( דּוּדאים , dūdhā'ı̄m  ; μανδραγόπας , mandragóras (  Genesis 30:14 f;   Song of Solomon 7:13 ); the marginal reading "love apples" is due to the supposed connection of dūdhā'ı̄m with דּודים , dōdhı̄m , "love"): Mandrakes are the fruit of the Mandragora officinarum , a member of the Solanaceae or potato order, closely allied to the Atropa belladonna . It is a common plant all over Palestine, flourishing particularly in the spring and ripening about the time of the wheat harvest ( Genesis 30:14 ). The plant has a rosette of handsome dark leaves, dark purple flowers and orange, tomato-like fruit. The root is long and branched; to pull it up is still considered unlucky (compare Josephus, BJ , VII, vi, 3). The fruit is called in Arabic baiḍ el - jinn , the "eggs of the jinn"; they have a narcotic smell and sweetish taste, but are too poisonous to be used as food. They are still used in folklore medicine in Palestine. The plant was well known as an aphrodisiac by the ancients ( Song of Solomon 7:13 ).