From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

The distinctive sense in which the apostles speak of knowledge has reference to the knowledge of God, and especially to the knowledge of God and the world through Jesus Christ.

1. The organ of knowledge .-St. Paul teaches clearly ( Romans 1:18-23) that, apart from any special revelation, God has exhibited so plainly His attributes of eternal power and divinity in creation that there is given to man an instinctive knowledge of God. There is a certain intelligence in mankind which, apart from the power of the senses, makes God known by the heart when He is not understood by the reason. Indeed, men became darkened in their understandings when they began to indulge in reasoning, and in trying to be wise they became fools. Thus St. Paul places the intuitive moral consciousness as the central organ of the true knowledge of God. When the Apostle speaks of the means by which the Christian knowledge of God is acquired, he develops this principle. It is true that St. Paul admits that for the knowledge of the facts of Christ’s life he and others are indebted to the testimony of witnesses ( 1 Corinthians 15:3), and that for bringing faith and knowledge the preaching of the word of truth is invaluable, but he insists pre-eminently that in all true knowledge of God in Christ the spirit of man is directly acted upon by the Spirit of God ( 1 Corinthians 2:4-6,  Ephesians 3:5).

St. Paul, who excelled in logic and speculation, cannot be regarded as unnecessarily decrying the logical faculty or the speculative gift, and yet he speaks of reasonings (λογισμούς) and of vaunting speculations (‘every high thing,’ πᾶν ὕψωμα) as possible strengths of the enemy that required to be cast down, and of the need of bringing every thought into the obedience of Christ ( 2 Corinthians 10:5). Perhaps this attitude may have been accentuated for the Apostle by the fact that in his own experience so much of his knowledge should have come directly in visions, as in the vision of Jesus, the Exalted Christ ( Acts 9:3), in the vision of the man of Macedonia ( Acts 16:10), and in the vision of the third heaven ( 2 Corinthians 12:1).

St. John declares that all men have the organ of spiritual vision by which God, who is light, is revealed to them. Many refuse to exercise this organ, and prefer to dwell in darkness, and thus lose the power of knowing, while spiritual vision becomes clearer and stronger by a purer and better moral life. Those who keep the commandments of God come to a growing knowledge ( 1 John 2:3), and only those in whom love is abiding really possess this Divine knowledge ( 1 John 4:7). Whoever persists in sinning does not know God ( 1 John 3:6). The organ of knowledge is spiritual and ethical, not merely logical or speculative.

Thus both these apostles are alike in their insistence that the organ of Divine knowledge is to be found in this deep faculty of the soul. The apostles would agree in the saying: ‘Pectus facit Christianum,’ if not: ‘Pectus facit theologum.’

2. The object of knowledge .-Much of the earliest teaching of the apostles was to demonstrate that Jesus of Nazareth was the Christ of God ( Acts 2:36), and the object of all their knowledge and preaching might be summed up in the phrase of St. Paul; ‘to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ’ ( 2 Corinthians 4:6). This illumination (φωτισμός) came first to the apostles with the purpose of being conveyed by them to others who were in ignorance. Thus the object that is made known to all Christians is the glory of God as revealed in the person, character, and work of Jesus Christ, so that what was only dimly discerned before is now clearly seen. This is the open secret that believers in Christ have discovered and delight to make known. This is the μυστήριον that was hidden for long ages but is now revealed, so that the Divine plan of redemption is no longer a secret but is heralded forth in Jesus Christ ( Romans 16:25,  1 Corinthians 2:7). Thus St. Paul conceives of the glory of God as having been long concealed by the clouds of earth, but at last having shone forth in undimmed splendour; and those who believe that Jesus is the Lord receive a vision of God’s glory that illuminates all life, history, and experience.

To St. John also Jesus Christ is the source of light on all the great matters of life. Through Him we know God ( 1 John 2:3), and this provides the key to all knowledge.

The other apostles agree in the central place in their teaching being given to the knowledge of God in Christ, and the Epistle to the Hebrews ( Hebrews 8:11), in announcing that under the New Covenant there has come a universal knowledge of God, not only embodies the hopes of the OT prophets but also declares the faith of the NT teachers.

3. Implications of knowledge .-This Christian knowledge sheds its light on all the facts and aims of life. Thus individuals learn the outstanding features of their own characters ( James 1:23), the sanctity of their lives as being the temples of God ( 1 Corinthians 3:16), the value of their bodies as members of Christ ( 1 Corinthians 6:15), and the consecration of all the powers of body and mind as an acceptable service to God ( Romans 12:1). Christian knowledge leads to a better understanding of all the experiences of life, and to a conviction that in and through every event God is making all things to work together for good to them that love Him ( Romans 8:28), and especially to a conviction that the trials of life do not come without Divine planning but are appointed by the will of God ( 1 Thessalonians 3:3). Through Christ there comes likewise a better knowledge of social duties, e.g. in the relation of masters and servants. Servants are expected to render a whole-hearted service because they know that their real master is Jesus Christ, by whom they are to be recompensed. Masters are required to carry out all their duties with justice and fairness, for they know that they have to account to their Unseen Master, the Lord in heaven ( Colossians 3:22 ff.). Even minor social problems like those of eating and drinking have new light cast upon them ( Romans 14:14), for the light of Jesus Christ has illuminated all life and brought knowledge where formerly there was doubt or ignorance.

In the Epistles of St. John this Christian gnosis has a predominant place, and it is interesting to note how wide and vital this knowledge becomes according to the Apostle. The knowledge of God is at the centre, and it radiates forth in every direction to a wide circumference, for it includes the knowledge of truth ( 1 John 2:21), of righteousness ( 1 John 2:29), of love ( 1 John 3:16), of spiritual life and inspiration ( 1 John 3:24,  1 John 4:2), and of the state of those beyond the grave ( 1 John 3:2). In the light of God Christians possess a light that brings enlightenment to them on many problems of experience, perplexities of the present time, and mysteries of the future life.

4. Complements of knowledge .-The apostles uniformly recognize that knowledge of itself is imperfect and must be always associated with other Christian gifts. To reach its fullness it must be accompanied by abnegation ( Philippians 3:6), by fellowship with God and with brethren ( 1 John 1:3), by obedience to God’s commands ( 1 John 2:3), by attention to apostolic teaching ( 1 John 4:6), and by faith, virtue, temperance, patience, godliness, love of the brethren, and love ( 2 Peter 1:6).

Special notice should be taken of the connexion of knowledge and faith, and of knowledge and love. The apostles do not recognize any essential antagonism between faith and knowledge. Faith does not arise from ignorance but from knowledge ( Romans 10:17), and knowledge does not supersede faith but includes it ( 2 Peter 1:6). The knowledge of God in Christ is synonymous with faith in Him, and in their essence the two are closely inter-related. In knowledge there is the recognition of the Divine by our spiritual nature, in faith there is the action of the will in virtue of this insight, so that the highest knowledge and the humblest faith go together. There is a kind of knowledge, however, that puffs up ( 1 Corinthians 8:1), and so far from its leading to faith it begets a self-sufficiency and pride that strike at the very foundations of all Christian faith.

At their best there is also no antagonism between knowledge and love. To know God is to love Him, and to reach the highest knowledge love is necessary. ‘Every one that loveth is begotten of God and knoweth him’ ( 1 John 4:7). Christian knowledge is not a matter of the intellect but of the deeper moral and spiritual faculties that find their true expression in love. Still knowledge and love may come into conflict, and in the solution of many practical problems love is even more necessary than knowledge. St. Paul deals with this relation especially in his discussion of the attitude to be adopted to things sacrificed to idols. For his generation the difficulty was intense, as some Christians dreaded the slightest approval being given to idol-worship, while others were so convinced that idolatry was false that they considered it a negligible quantity. Among the latter were many Corinthian Christians, who had announced to the Apostle their conviction that the whole system of idolatry seemed so false that they could eat any food irrespective of its being associated with idol-worship. But St. Paul in his reply ( 1 Corinthians 8:1 ff.) argues that a mere intellectual conviction is not the only or the best guide in such a matter. In theory the Corinthians might be right, but in practice they must not be guided by knowledge alone. ‘Knowledge puffeth up, but love edifieth,’ and in matters that are intimately concerned with the feelings and prejudices of others love is the safer guide. To a Christian even more than to a philosopher the saying of Aristotle must apply: τὸ τέλος ἐστὶν οὐ γνῶσις ἀλλὰ πρᾶξις ( Nic. Eth . i. iii. 6).

5. Philosophy and theosophy .-The relation of Christian knowledge to philosophy and theosophy is discussed by St. Paul. The Apostle expounds the gospel as being not only ‘power’ but also ‘wisdom,’ yet he refuses to establish this wisdom by any of the current arguments or by the conclusions of Greek philosophy ( 1 Corinthians 2:1 ff.). He is proclaiming a gospel that is folly in the eyes of many, and yet it is the true wisdom to those who understand it. This higher philosophy has been hidden from the sight of men, otherwise they would not have crucified the Lord Jesus Christ. It comes through the indwelling of the Spirit of God, who alone can reveal it. Just as the spirit of man alone can understand the things of a man, so the Spirit of God in man alone can understand the Divine philosophy. ‘The merely intellectual man’ rejects this philosophy, as he does not possess the spiritual insight to discern its Divine wisdom. Even Christian people may be mere children in this respect, not able to understand this teaching; and among other indications of this childish mind was the party spirit by which so many were impelled. Thus St. Paul argues that the initiated Christians find in Christ a philosophy as well as a gospel.

Christian knowledge came into conflict with the theosophical tendencies that were so prevalent in many ancient schools of thought. In this connexion St. Paul’s Epistle to the Colossians is of chief importance. The Apostle deals in this Epistle with claims that had been made by certain Christians to a higher Christian life through means that involved ascetic and ritual practices, and from arguments that rested on speculative and theosophic principles. It is unnecessary for the present purpose to decide whether these heresies arose from a latent Gnosticism or from certain features of Judaism; but, if Judaism was the source, it was a Judaism influenced by the thought and spirit of the Diaspora. This may be judged by the kind of speculations in which they indulge, especially in the cosmical dualism that they shadow forth and in the belief in an endless series of angelic beings as mediators between God and men. St. Paul does not denounce all speculative knowledge, but opposes it by a higher knowledge of Jesus Christ. He develops the teaching about Christ so that He is presented not only as a full and perfect Saviour for men, but also as the Lord of the Universe, in whom all things, even angels, were created, and as the fullness of all things, by whom both men and angels were made at one with God. This insistence on the cosmical value of Christ carries with it the best refutation of all extra-Christian theosophical teaching.

Literature.-H. J. Holtzmann, NT Theologie , 1896, i. 476-486; A. E. Garvie, in Mansfield College Essays , 1909, p. 161; J. Y. Simpson, The Spiritual Interpretation of Nature , 1912, p. 11; J. R. Illingworth, Reason and Revelation , 1902, p. 44; A. Chandler, Faith and Experience , 1911; W. P. DuBose, The Reason of Life , 1911, p. 198; J. Denney, The Way Everlasting , 1911, p. 26; W. M. Macgregor, Jesus Christ the Son of God , 1907, p. 175; W. G. Rutherford, The Key of Knowledge , 1901, p. 1; articles in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) (J. Denney), Hastings’ Single-vol. Dictionary of the Bible (J. H. Maude), and Catholic Encyclopedia (A. J. Maas); see also articleIgnorance.

D. Macrae Tod.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [2]

Among the many abilities God gave human beings is the ability to think, know and reason. Their knowledge may range from knowing people to knowing things. It may be both practical and theoretical, and it may cover the concrete and the abstract, the seen and the unseen. Above all, human beings have the capacity to know God. That knowledge is to be valued above all others and will affect all others ( Jeremiah 9:23-24;  John 17:3).

A relationship

God wants the people of his creation to know him. This does not mean merely that they should know about him, but that they should know him personally through coming into a relationship with him ( Jeremiah 24:7;  Jeremiah 31:34;  Hosea 6:6;  John 17:3;  1 John 4:6;  1 John 4:8;  1 John 5:20). Similarly God knows those who are his – those whom he has chosen, those whom he has taken into a spiritual union with himself ( Deuteronomy 34:10;  Amos 3:2;  Matthew 7:23;  John 10:27;  2 Timothy 2:19). In fact, people can know God only because God has first known them; that is, loved them, chosen them and made them his own ( Exodus 33:17;  Jeremiah 1:5;  John 10:14;  Galatians 4:9).

Because knowledge, in biblical language, can mean ‘to be brought into a close relationship with’, a man and a woman were said to ‘know’ each other when they had sexual relations ( Genesis 4:25;  Genesis 19:8;  Matthew 1:25). Knowledge could also mean ‘to have dealings with’, ‘to be concerned with’, or ‘to regard’ ( Deuteronomy 33:9;  Romans 7:7;  2 Corinthians 5:16;  2 Corinthians 5:21).

The Bible also speaks of knowledge according to the word’s more common meaning in relation to understanding and learning. Yet even in such cases the knowledge usually has a very practical purpose. When people come to a knowledge of the truth, they grow in that truth through learning more of God and his ways ( Psalms 119:125;  1 Timothy 2:4;  2 Peter 1:5;  2 Peter 3:18; see Truth ). If people profess to be God’s people but do not know or obey his law, they only bring God’s judgment upon themselves ( Isaiah 5:13;  Jeremiah 4:22;  Hosea 4:6;  John 9:39-41;  Hebrews 5:12-13). The person who exercises a reverent submission to God has already taken the first step towards true knowledge. To refuse to go further is to act like a fool ( Proverbs 1:7;  Proverbs 1:22;  Proverbs 2:1-5;  Proverbs 8:10; see Wisdom ).

Christian experience

People need at least some knowledge before they can have true faith in Jesus Christ as Saviour. Therefore, Christians must make known the facts about Jesus Christ ( Romans 10:14). Those who believe must increase their knowledge of God and all that he has done for them through Jesus Christ. As a result they will know more of the power that Christ has made available to them, and will be able to worship him better ( Ephesians 1:17-23).

If Christians are to make correct decisions in life and develop character of true quality, they must increase their knowledge of God and his Word. They cannot expect to do God’s will unless first they know it ( Psalms 32:8-9;  Philippians 1:9-11;  Colossians 1:9-10; see Guidance ).

The knowledge that Christians are to seek can be obtained only as their minds are renewed and developed according to their new life in Christ ( Romans 12:2;  Colossians 3:2;  Colossians 3:10; see Mind ). They must remember, however, to put into practice what they learn ( Psalms 119:34;  John 13:17;  James 1:22;  1 John 2:4). They must remember also that in using their knowledge, they should act with humility before God and with love and consideration towards others ( Daniel 10:12;  1 Corinthians 8:1-2;  1 Corinthians 13:2).

Knowledge and morality

There is therefore no suggestion in the Bible that knowledge excuses people from self-discipline. This was one of the errors of Gnosticism, a heresy that did much damage to the church during the second century. (The word ‘Gnostic’ comes from the Greek word gnosis, meaning ‘knowledge’.)

Forerunners of the Gnostics appeared in the church in New Testament times. These ‘knowing ones’ claimed to have a knowledge not shared by ordinary Christians, a claim that Paul strongly denied. The treasures of God’s wisdom are found in Christ, not in Gnosticism, and are available to all God’s people, not just to those who are specially enlightened ( Colossians 2:2-4;  Colossians 2:8-10;  Colossians 2:18-19;  Colossians 3:1-3; cf.  Colossians 1:9; cf.  Colossians 1:28; see COLOSSIANS, Letter TO THE).

The Gnostics’ belief that all matter was evil led to opposite extremes of behaviour. Some of the Gnostics kept strict laws in an effort to avoid contact with the material world. Others, realizing that withdrawal from the material world was not possible, made no such effort. They even claimed that behaviour was irrelevant, because by their superior knowledge they had risen above the evil material world into a realm where deeds were of no importance. They could sin as they liked and still be Christians. The apostle John met this claim with a flat contradiction ( 1 John 3:9; see JOHN, Letters OF).

John pointed out that knowledge, far from being a substitute for morality, leads to morality. If people know God, they will keep his moral commandments ( 1 John 2:3-4). If they know Christ, they know that Christ died to save people from sin and turn them to the way that is right ( 1 John 2:29;  1 John 3:5-6;  1 John 3:24; see Assurance ).

Holman Bible Dictionary [3]

 Genesis 4:1

God's knowledge is said to be omniscient. He knows all things ( Job 21:22;  Psalm 139:1-18 ); His understanding is beyond measure ( Psalm 147:5 ). He knows the thoughts of our minds and the secrets of our hearts ( Psalm 44:21;  Psalm 94:11 ). He knows past events ( Genesis 30:22 ), present happenings ( Job 31:4 ). and future events ( Zechariah 13:1;  Luke 1:33 ).

The knowledge which God has of nations and human beings indicates that He has a personal interest—not merely an awareness—of people ( Psalm 144:3 ). To be known by God may mean that a nation or individual is chosen by God to play a part in God's purposes in the world ( Jeremiah 1:5;  Amos 3:2;  Galatians 4:9 ).

The Bible speaks often about human knowledge. Knowledge of God is the greatest knowledge ( Proverbs 9:10 ) and is the chief duty of humankind ( Hosea 6:6 ). In the Old Testament, the Israelites know God through what He does for His people ( Exodus 9:29;  Leviticus 23:43;  Deuteronomy 4:32-39;  Psalm 9:10;  Psalm 59:13;  Psalm 78:16;  Hosea 2:19-20 ). This knowledge of God is not simply theoretical or factual knowledge; it includes experiencing the reality of God in one's life (compare  Philippians 3:10 ) and living one's life in a manner that shows a respect for the power and majesty of God (compare  Jeremiah 22:15-16 ).

In the New Testament one knows God through a knowledge of Jesus Christ ( John 8:19;  Colossians 2:2-3 ). The apostle Paul closely connected knowledge to faith. Knowledge gives direction, conviction, and assurance to faith ( 2 Corinthians 4:14 ). Knowledge is a spiritual gift ( 1 Corinthians 12:8 ) which can grow, increase, be filled, and abound ( Philippians 1:9;  Colossians 1:9-10;  2 Corinthians 8:7 ). It consists in having a better understanding of God's will in the ethical sense ( Colossians 1:9-10;  Philippians 1:9 ), of knowing that God desires to save people ( Ephesians 1:8-9 ), and of having a deeper insight into God's will given in Christ ( Ephesians 1:17;  Ephesians 3:18-19 ).

But though Paul recognized the importance of knowledge, he also knew that it could be a divisive factor in churches such as at Rome and Corinth where some Christians claimed to be more spiritual because of their knowledge of spiritual matters ( Romans 14:1-15:6;  1 Corinthians 8:1-13 ). Paul argued that knowledge puffs up but love builds up, and the knowledge exercised by the “strong” in faith could cause the “weak” in faith to go against their Christian conscience and lead to their spiritual ruin. Knowledge can be misused ( 1 Corinthians 8:1 ). Love is more important than knowledge ( 1 Corinthians 13:1 ), yet knowledge is still a gift, necessary for Christian teaching ( 1 Corinthians 14:6 ) and for Christian growth toward a mature faith ( 1 Corinthians 8:7;  2 Peter 1:5-6;  2 Peter 3:18 ).

In the Gospel of John, knowledge is a key concept, although the noun “knowledge” itself never occurs in John's Gospel. John instead frequently uses the verbs “to know.” Jesus and the Father have a mutual knowledge ( John 10:14-15 ), and Jesus' knowledge of God is perfect ( John 3:11;  John 4:22;  John 7:28-29 , for example). Jesus brings to lost humankind the knowledge of God which is necessary for salvation ( John 7:28-29;  John 8:19 ), but which humankind has distorted through sin ( John 1:10 ). God's knowledge of Jesus consists of giving Jesus His mission and the power to perform it ( John 10:18 ). Jesus' knowledge of the Father consists of His hearing God's word and obediently expressing it to the world.

Knowledge of God is closely related to faith, expressing the perception and understanding of faith. Full knowledge is possible only after Jesus' glorification, since the disciples sometimes failed to understand Jesus ( John 4:32;  John 10:6;  John 12:16 ). In John, knowledge is expressed in Christian witness which may evoke belief in Jesus ( John 1:7;  John 4:39;  John 12:17-18 ) and in love ( John 17:26 ). Whereas Jesus' knowledge of the Father is direct, the disciples' knowledge of Jesus is indirect, qualified by believing. The Christian's knowledge of Jesus is the perception of Jesus as the revelation of God which leads to obedience to His word of love. So the Christian is caught up into God's mission of love to the world in order that the world may come to know and believe in Jesus as the revelation of the Father's love for the world.

Roger L. Omanson

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [4]


I. Human knowledge

1. In the OT . Knowledge, so far as it has a theological use, is moral rather than intellectual. It is assumed that a knowledge of God is possible, but this is the result of a revelation of Himself by God, and not a speculative knowledge achieved by man. So knowledge becomes practically equivalent to religion (  Psalms 25:14 ,   Isaiah 11:2 ), and ignorance to irreligion (  1 Samuel 2:12 ,   Hosea 4:1;   Hosea 6:6 ). The Messianic age is to bring knowledge, but this will be taught of God (  Isaiah 54:13 ). This knowledge of God is therefore quite consistent with speculative ignorance about the universe (  Job 38:1-41;   Job 39:1-30 ). Perhaps some expressions in the NT which seem to refer to Gnostic ideas may be explained by this view of knowledge.

2. In the NT . ( a ) In the Gospels knowledge is spoken of in the same sense as in the OT. Christ alone possesses the knowledge of God (  Matthew 11:25-27 ). This knowledge gives a new relation to God, and without it man is still in darkness (  Matthew 5:8 ,   John 7:17;   John 17:3 ). ( b ) In St. Paul’s Epistles . In the earlier Epistles knowledge is spoken of as a gift of the Spirit (  1 Corinthians 1:30;   1 Corinthians 1:2;   1 Corinthians 12:8 ), although God can to a certain extent be known through nature (  Acts 14:7 ,   Romans 1:19-20 ). 1 Cor. especially urges the subordination of knowledge to charity. In   Colossians 2:1-23 and   1 Timothy 6:20 a wrong kind of knowledge is spoken of perhaps an early form of Gnosticism. True knowledge, however, centres in Christ, who is the mystery of God (  Colossians 2:2 ). In Him all questions find their answer, and this knowledge is not, like Gnosticism, the property of a few, but is intended for all men (  Colossians 1:28 ). In the Pastoral Epp. knowledge is spoken of with reference to a definite body of accepted teaching, which is repeatedly alluded to; it is, however, not merely intellectual but moral (  Titus 1:1 ). ( c ) In the other NT books knowledge is not prominent, except in 2 Peter, where, however, there is nothing specially characteristic. In Hebrews the ordinary word for ‘knowledge’ does not occur at all, but the main object of the Epistle is to create and confirm a certain kind of Christian knowledge. Although knowledge in both OT and NT is almost always moral, there is no trace of the Socratic doctrine that virtue is knowledge.

II. Divine knowledge. It is not necessary to show that perfect knowledge is ascribed to God throughout the Scriptures. In some OT books Job and some Psalms the ignorance of man is emphasized in order to bring God’s omniscience into relief (cf. also the personification of the Divine Wisdom in the Books of Proverbs and Wisdom).

III. Divine and human knowledge in Christ. The question has been much debated how Divine and human knowledge could co-exist in Christ, and whether in His human nature He was capable of ignorance . It is a question that has often been argued on a priori grounds, but it should rather be considered with reference to the evidence in the records of His life. The Gospels certainly attribute to Christ an extraordinary and apparently a supernatural knowledge. But even supernatural illumination is not necessarily Divine consciousness, and the Gospel records also seem to attribute to our Lord such limitations of knowledge as may be supposed to make possible a really human experience. 1 . There are direct indications of ordinary limitations. He advanced in wisdom (  Luke 2:52 ); He asked for information (  Mark 6:38;   Mark 8:5;   Mark 9:21 ,   Luke 8:30 ,   John 11:34 ); He expressed surprise (  Mark 6:38;   Mark 8:5;   Mark 9:21 ,   John 11:34 ). His use of prayer, and especially the prayer in the garden (  Matthew 26:39 ) and the words upon the cross (  Mark 15:34 ), point in the same direction. 2 . With regard to one point our Lord expressly disclaimed Divine knowledge (  Mark 13:32 ). 3 . In the Fourth Gospel, while claiming unity with the Father, He speaks of His teaching as derived from the Father under the limitations of a human state (  John 3:34;   John 5:19-20;   John 8:28;   John 12:49-50 ). 4 . While speaking with authority, and in a way which precludes the possibility of fallibility in the deliverance of the Divine message, He never enlarged our store of natural knowledge, physical or historical. If it be true that Christ lived under limitations in respect of the use of His Divine omniscience, this is a part of the self-emptying which He undertook for us men and for our salvation (see Kenosis).

J. H. Maude.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [5]

There are several Greek words translated 'to know,' the principal of which are

1. οἶδα,signifying 'inward conscious knowledge' in the mind; and

2. γινώσκω,signifying 'objective knowledge.' The latter passes into consciousness, but not vice versa. There are several passages in the N.T. in which both words occur, a study will show that the words are not used promiscuously, and need to be carefully considered .

 Matthew 24:43 . Know [2] this, that if the goodman of the house had known [1] in what watch the thief would come, etc. The same distinction occurs in  Luke 12:39 .

 Mark 4:13 . Know [1] ye not this parable? and how then will ye know [2] all parables?

 John 7:27 . We know [1] this man whence he is; but when Christ cometh, no man knoweth [2] whence he is.

 John 8:55 . Ye have not known [2] him; but I know [1] him; and if I should say, I know [1] him not, I shall be a liar like unto you: but I know [1] him, and keep his saying.

 John 13:7 . What I do thou knowest [1] not now; but thou shalt know [2] hereafter.

 John 21:17 . Lord, thou knowest [1] all things; thou knowest [2] that I love thee.

 Romans 7:7 . I had not known [2] sin, but by the law: for I had not known [1] lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.

 1 Corinthians 8:1,2 . We know [1] that we all have knowledge [2]. Knowledge [2] puffeth up, but charity edifieth. And if any man think that he knoweth [1] (Editors alter this into [2] ) anything, he knoweth [2] nothing yet as he ought to know. [2]

 2 Corinthians 5:16 . Henceforth know [1] we no man after the flesh: yea, though we have known [2] Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth know [2] we him no more.

 Hebrews 8:11 . They shall not teach . . . . saying, Know [2] the Lord: for all shall know [1] me, from the least to the greatest.

 1 John 2:29 . If ye know [1] that he is righteous, ye know [2] that every one that doeth righteousness is born of him.

 1 John 5:20 . We know [1] that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know [2] him that is true.

Both these words are employed for the Lord's own knowledge. In  Matthew 12:15 , Jesus knew [2] (that they were plotting to destroy him) having heard it. And in  Matthew 12:25 Jesus knew [1] their thoughts — had the conscious knowledge of it. Respecting our knowledge of the person of Christ, in   Luke 10:22 , no one knows [2] who the Son is except the Father; but in  Matthew 11:27 , which is a parallel passage, neither of the above words are used, but ἐπιγινώσκω,which implies a certain objective knowledge, not a mere acquaintance with a person. The knowledge that is partial, and that shall vanish away, is the objective knowledge,  1 Corinthians 13:8,9; not the inward conscious knowledge. In  1 Corinthians 13:12 it is real knowledge in the future, ἐπιγινώσκω.The words (both Nos. 1 and 2) often occur separately in John's gospel and epistles, and their use may be profitably studied in a Greek Testament or Concordance.

Charles Buck Theological Dictionary [6]

Is defined by Mr. Locke to be the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of our ideas. It also denotes learning, or the improvement of our faculties by reading; experience, or the acquiring new ideas or truths, by seeing a variety of objects, and making observations upon them in our own minds. No man, says the admirable Dr. Watts, is obliged to learn and know every thing; this can neither be sought nor required, for it is utterly impossible: yet all persons are under some obligation to improve their own understanding, otherwise it will be a barren desert, or a forest overgrown with weeds and brambles. Universal ignorance, or infinite error, will overspread the mind which is utterly neglected and lies without any cultivation. The following rules, therefore, should be attended to for the improvement of knowledge.

1. Deeply possess your mind with the vast importance of a good judgment, and the rich and inestimable advantage of right reasoning

2. Consider the weaknesses, failings, and mistakes of human nature in general.—

3. Be not satisfied with a slight view of things, but to take a wide survey now and then of the vast and unlimited regions of learning, the variety of questions and difficulties belonging to every science.

4. Presume not too much upon a bright genius, a ready wit, and good parts; for this, without study, will never make a man of knowledge.—

5. Do not imagine that large and laborious reading, and a strong memory, can denominate you truly wise, without meditation and studious thought.—

6. Be not so weak as to imagine that a life of learning is a life of laziness.—

7. Let the hope of new discoveries, as well as the satisfaction and pleasure of known truths, nor take up suddenly with mere appearances.—

8. Once a day, especially in the early years of life and study, call yourselves to an account what new ideas you have gained.—

9. Maintain a constant watch, at all times, against a dogmatical spirit.—

10. Be humble and courageous enough to retract any mistake, and confess an error.—

11. Beware of a fanciful temper of mind, and a humorous conduct.—

12. Have a care of trifling with things important and momentous, or of sporting with things awful and sacred.—

13. Ever maintain a virtuous and pious frame of spirit.—

14. Watch against the pride of your own reason, and a vain conceit of your own intellectual powers, with the neglect of divine aid and blessing.—

15. Offer up, therefore, your daily requests to God, the Father of Lights, that he would bless all your attempts and labours in reading, study, and conversation.

Watts on the Mind, chap. i; Dr. John Edwards's Uncertainty, Deficiency, and Corruption of Human Knowledge; Reid's Intellectual Powers of Man; Stennett's Sermon on  Acts 26:24-25 .

Webster's Dictionary [7]

(1): ( v. t.) To acknowledge.

(2): ( v. i.) The act or state of knowing; clear perception of fact, truth, or duty; certain apprehension; familiar cognizance; cognition.

(3): ( v. i.) That which is or may be known; the object of an act of knowing; a cognition; - chiefly used in the plural.

(4): ( v. i.) That which is gained and preserved by knowing; instruction; acquaintance; enlightenment; learning; scholarship; erudition.

(5): ( v. i.) That familiarity which is gained by actual experience; practical skill; as, a knowledge of life.

(6): ( v. i.) Scope of information; cognizance; notice; as, it has not come to my knowledge.

(7): ( v. i.) Sexual intercourse; - usually preceded by carnal; as, carnal knowledge.

King James Dictionary [8]

KNOWL'EDGE, n. nol'lej.

1. A clear and certain perception of that which exists, or of truth and fact the perception of the connection and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of our ideas.

We can have no knowledge of that which does not exist. God has a perfect knowledge of all his works. Human knowledge is very limited, and is mostly gained by observation and experience.

2. Learning illumination of mind.

Ignorance is the curse of God, knowledge the wing wherewith we fly to heaven.

3. Skill as a knowledge of seamanship. 4. Acquaintance with any fact or person. I have no knowledge of the man or thing. 5. Cognizance notice.  Ruth 2 . 6. Information power of knowing. 7. Sexual intercourse. But it is usual to prefix carnal as carnal knowledge.