From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

Jealousy, as the translation of ζῆλος (vb. ζηλόω, denotes the state of mind which arises from the knowledge or fear or suspicion of rivalry. (1) It is often begotten of self-love. Those who have come out of heathen darkness into Christian light should no longer walk in strife and jealousy ( Romans 13:13), which are characteristics of the carnal or selfish mind ( 1 Corinthians 3:3). Bitter jealousy (ζῆλον πικρόν) and faction, in which rivals are ‘each jealous of the other, as the stung are of the adder’ ( King Lear , v. i. 56f.), and exult over (κατακαυχᾶσθε) every petty triumph achieved, are an antithesis of Christianity, a lying against the truth ( James 3:14). Where jealousy and faction are, there is anarchy (ἀκαταστασία) and every vile deed ( James 3:16). The Jewish opponents of the gospel were filled with jealousy, e.g. in Jerusalem ( Acts 5:17) and Pisidian Antioch ( Acts 13:45). ‘Jealousies’ (ζῆλοι,  2 Corinthians 12:20,  Galatians 5:20) are the inward movements or outward manifestations of this un-Christian feeling.

(2) But the heat of jealousy (cf. קנְאָה) is not always false fire. To the Corinthians St. Paul says, ‘I am jealous over you with a godly jealousy’ (ζηλῶ γὰρ ὑμᾶς θεοῦ ζήλῳ,  2 Corinthians 11:2), i.e. with a jealousy like that of God. In the OT Jahweh is the husband of Israel, loving her and claiming all her love; in which sense He is a jealous God. A somewhat similar jealousy is once ascribed to Christ (in  John 2:17, ζῆλος, ‘zeal’); and St. Paul, who has betrothed the Corinthian Church to the Lord, and hopes to present her as a pure bride to Him, is jealous over her on His behalf, feeling the bare thought that she may after all give herself to another to be intolerable. Some take θεοῦ ζήλῳ to mean ‘with a zeal for God,’ but the context demands a stricter sense of the word.

James Strahan.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [2]

There are two aspects of jealousy in the Bible, one bad, the other good. Jealousy in the bad sense is envy – the feeling of resentment or hate that people have towards those who have more influence, power, ability, status, fame or possessions than they ( Genesis 30:1;  Genesis 37:11;  1 Samuel 18:8-9;  Job 5:2;  Psalms 106:16;  Matthew 27:18;  Acts 5:17;  1 John 3:12). Such jealousy is a characteristic of sinful human nature, but the Spirit of Christ and the power of love in a person’s life can overcome it ( Proverbs 27:4;  Romans 13:13-14;  1 Corinthians 13:4;  Galatians 5:21;  James 3:14-16).

Jealousy in the good sense is the desire a person has for the well-being of someone he or she loves. It is a desire so strong that it demands faithfulness and opposes all that would tempt to unfaithfulness ( Numbers 5:12-15;  Proverbs 6:32-35). This is what the Bible means when it speaks of God being jealous for his people. He desires their faithfulness and has a deep concern for their well-being ( Exodus 20:4-5;  Deuteronomy 6:15;  Joshua 24:19;  Psalms 78:58;  Zechariah 1:14;  1 Corinthians 10:21-22;  James 4:5).

Likewise the godly leader who is concerned for the spiritual progress of God’s people may speak of himself as being jealous for them ( 2 Corinthians 11:2). In the same way the person who is concerned to uphold the honour of God’s name is jealous for God ( 1 Kings 19:10;  Ezekiel 39:25). Jealousy may therefore include the idea of zeal for all that is right and opposition to all that is wrong ( Numbers 25:11-13;  Deuteronomy 4:24;  Nahum 1:2;  John 2:17;  2 Corinthians 7:11).

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology [3]

Jealousy is used in the Scriptures in both a positive and a negative sense. When jealousy is used as an attribute of God, it is obviously used in a positive sense. Probably the most striking example of the anthropomorphic portrayal of God is in those passages where he is said to be jealous. The language is based upon the relationship of husband and wife and is frequently associated with Israel's unfaithfulness to God.

The Hebrew word qana [   Numbers 5:14-30 ) and God's passionate anger against sin ( 1 Kings 14:22;  Psalm 78:58 ). It is used in a negative sense in  Proverbs 6:34 , where a man is in a rage because of his jealousy. In Song of  Song of Solomon 8:6 jealousy is described as being as "unyielding as the grave."   Ezekiel 8:3 describes an idol that was set up in the temple mount "that provokes to jealousy." This image, along with other idols, caused God to remove his shekinah glory from the temple.

The Greek word zelos [] and its verb form zeloo [] are only used five times in the New Testament. In  Romans 10:19 , Israel is said to be provoked to jealousy by Gentile nations that receive divine blessings. The same use of the word is recorded in  Romans 11:11 because "salvation has come to the Gentiles." In   2 Corinthians 11:2 , Paul declares his deep concern for the Corinthians when he says, "I am jealous for you with a godly jealousy."

The Corinthian Christians are said to be provoking God to jealousy because of the worship of idols ( 1 Corinthians 10:22 ). This is followed by the question, "Are we stronger than he?" meaning "Can we afford to defy his power?" Therefore, to arouse the jealousy of God is a very dangerous action on our part. On the other hand, God's jealousy is based on his love and concern for us.

Alan N. Winkler

Morrish Bible Dictionary [4]

qana, 'to be inflamed.' The warm affection that cannot bear to see its loved one enticed by another, as a man is jealous of his wife,  Numbers 5:14; as Paul felt for the Corinthian saints,  2 Corinthians 11:2; and as God regarded the people and the land which He had chosen, and upon which He had placed His name.  Psalm 79:5;  Ezekiel 39:25;  Joel 2:18;  Zechariah 1:14;  Zechariah 8:2 . "Jehovah, whose name is jealous, is a jealous God."  Exodus 34:14 .

Moses speaks of Jehovah provoking Israel to jealousy by their seeing Gentiles coming into blessing. Paul also sought to do the same that they might be saved.  Deuteronomy 32:21;  Romans 10:19;  Romans 11:11,14 .

THE Image Of Jealousy which provoketh to jealousy, was seen in a vision by the prophet, set up in the temple ( Ezekiel 8:3-5 ), as when Manasseh set up the graven image in the house of Jehovah,  2 Kings 11:7; though doubtless by the scope of the prophecy reference is made to secret idolatry in connection with the service of the temple, and to secret idols in the hearts of those who were professedly the worshippers of God: such would assuredly provoke the jealousy of Jehovah.

THE LAW OF JEALOUSY, when a man suspected his wife of being unfaithful to him, is given in  Numbers 5:11-31 . The woman was required to drink bitter water, composed of 'holy water,' in which was placed dust from the floor of the tabernacle (type of the Holy Spirit applying what death is, as God's judgement of sin, by the word to the conscience). If she had been unfaithful it would be a curse to her. It pointed figuratively to the question of Israel's unfaithfulness to Jehovah.

Holman Bible Dictionary [5]

 Exodus 20:5 Exodus 34:14 Deuteronomy 4:24 Deuteronomy 5:9 Ezekiel 36:6 Ezekiel 39:25 Nahum 1:2 Zechariah 1:14 Zechariah 8:2 Numbers 25:11 25:13 1 Kings 19:14 2 Corinthians 11:2

 Numbers 5:11-30 concerns the process by which a husband suspicious of his wife's unfaithfulness might test her. Most often human jealousy involves hostility towards a rival. Joseph's brothers were jealous (  Genesis 37:11 ) and thus sold their brother into slavery ( Acts 7:9 ). In  Acts 17:5 a jealous group among the Jews incited the crowd against Paul. Jealousy, like envy, is common in vice lists (  Romans 13:13;  2 Corinthians 12:20;  Galatians 5:20-21 ). Jealousy is regarded as worse than wrath or anger ( Proverbs 27:4 ). James regarded jealousy (or bitter envy) as characteristic of earthy, demonic wisdom ( Proverbs 3:14 ) and as the source of all disorder and wickedness ( Proverbs 3:16 ). See Envy .

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [6]

JEALOUSY . The law of the ‘jealousy ordeal’ (in which a wife suspected of unfaithfulness had to prove her innocence by drinking the water of bitterness [‘holy water’ mixed with dust from the floor of the Tabernacle]) is found in   Numbers 5:11-31 . The conception of idolatry as adultery and of Jehovah as the Husband of Israel led the OT writers frequently to speak of Him as a jealous God (  Exodus 20:5 ,   Deuteronomy 5:9 ,   Joshua 24:19 ,   1 Kings 14:22 ,   Psalms 78:58 ,   Ezekiel 36:6 ,   Nahum 1:2 ). This jealousy is the indication of Jehovah’s desire to maintain the purity of the spiritual relation between Himself and His people. Extraordinary zeal for this same end is characteristic of the servants of Jehovah, and is sometimes called jealousy with them (  2 Corinthians 11:2 ,   Numbers 25:11;   Numbers 25:13 ,   1 Kings 19:10 ). A few times the word is used in a bad sense (  Romans 13:13 , 1Co 3:3 ,   2 Corinthians 12:20 ,   Galatians 5:20 ,   James 3:14;   James 3:16 ).

D. A. Hayes.

King James Dictionary [7]

JEALOUSY, n. jel'usy.

1. That passion of peculiar uneasiness which arises from the fear that a rival may rob us of the affection of one whom we love, or the suspicion that he has already done it or it is the uneasiness which arises from the fear that another does or will enjoy some advantage which we desire for ourselves. A man's jealousy is excited by the attentions of a rival to his favorite lady. A woman's jealousy is roused by her husband's attentions to another woman. The candidate for office manifests a jealousy of others who seek the same office. The jealousy of a student is awakened by the apprehension that his fellow will bear away the palm of praise. In short,jealousy is awakened by whatever may exalt others, or give them pleasures and advantages which we desire for ourselves. Jealousy is nearly allied to envy, for jealousy, before a good is lost by ourselves, is converted into envy, after it is obtained by others.

Jealousy is the apprehension of superiority.

Whoever had qualities to alarm our jealousy, had excellence to deserve our fondness.

2. Suspicious fear or apprehension. 3. Suspicious caution or vigilance, an earnest concern or solicitude for the welfare or honor of others. Such was Paul's godly jealousy for the Corinthians. 4. Indignation. God's jealousy signifies his concern for his own character and government, with a holy indignation against those who violate his laws, and offend against his majesty.  Psalms 79

Easton's Bible Dictionary [8]

 Numbers 5:14 Proverbs 6:34 Song of Solomon 8:6 Psalm 79:5 1 Corinthians 10:22 Zechariah 1:14

Charles Buck Theological Dictionary [9]

Is that particular uneasiness which arises from the fear that some rival may rob us of the affection of one whom we greatly love, or suspicion that he has already done it. The first sort of jealousy is inseparable from love, before it is in possession of its object; the latter is unjust, generally mischievous, and always troublesome.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [10]

See under  Ezekiel 8:3,5 , is the same with Thammuz in  Ezekiel 8:14 . See Thammuz .

Webster's Dictionary [11]

(n.) The quality of being jealous; earnest concern or solicitude; painful apprehension of rivalship in cases nearly affecting one's happiness; painful suspicion of the faithfulness of husband, wife, or lover.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [12]

Waters Of See Adultery .

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [13]

jel´us - i ( קנאה , kin'āh  ; ζῆλος , zḗlos ): Doubtless, the root idea of both the Greek and the Hob translated "jealousy" is "warmth," "heat." Both are used in a good and a bad sense - to represent right and wrong passion.

When jealousy is attributed to God, the word is used in a good sense. The language is, of course, anthropomorphic; and it is based upon the feeling in a husband of exclusive right in his wife. God is conceived as having wedded Israel to Himself, and as claiming, therefore, exclusive devotion. Disloyalty on the part of Israel is represented as adultery, and as provoking God to jealousy. See, e.g.,  Deuteronomy 32:16 ,  Deuteronomy 32:21;  1 Kings 14:22;  Psalm 78:58;  Ezekiel 8:3;  Ezekiel 16:38 ,  Ezekiel 16:42;  Ezekiel 23:25;  Ezekiel 36:5;  Ezekiel 38:19 .

When jealousy is attributed to men, the sense is sometimes good, and sometimes bad. In the good sense, it refers to an ardent concern for God's honor. See, e.g.,  Numbers 25:11 (compare   1 Kings 19:10;  2 Kings 10:16 );  2 Corinthians 11:2 (compare   Romans 10:2 ). In the bad sense it is found in  Acts 7:9;  Romans 13:13;  1 Corinthians 3:3;  2 Corinthians 12:20;  James 3:14 ,  James 3:16 .

The "law of jealousy" is given in  Numbers 5:11-31 . It provided that, when a man suspected his wife of conjugal infidelity, an offering should be brought to the priest, and the question of her guilt or innocence should be subjected to a test there carefully prescribed. The test was intended to be an appeal to God to decide the question at issue. See Adultery; Sacrifice .

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [14]

( קַנְאָה , Ζῆλος ), properly the feeling of suspicion of a wife's purity (Numbers 5, 14); often used of Jehovah's sensitive regard for the true faith of his Church ( Exodus 20:5, etc.;  2 Corinthians 11:2). (See Marriage). The same term is sometimes used for anger or indignation, or an intense interest for the honor and prosperity of another ( Psalms 79:5;  1 Corinthians 10:22;  Zechariah 1:14;  Zechariah 8:2). Conjugal jealousy is one of the strongest passions of our nature ( Proverbs 6:34;  Song of Solomon 8:6). When God is said to be A Jealous God, or to be moved to Jealousy, or when the still stronger expression is used, " Jehovah, Whose Name Is Jealous" ( Exodus 24:14), we are to understand this language as employed to illustrate, rather than to represent, the emotions of the divine mind. The same causes operating upon the human mind would produce what we call anger, jealousy, repentance, grief, etc.; and therefore, when these emotions are ascribed to the mind of God, this language is used because such emotions can be represented to us by no other. Thus God is represented to us as a husband, related to his Church by a marriage covenant that binds her to be wholly for him, and not for another. The more sincere and constant the love, the more sensitive is the heart to the approach of a rival and the thought of such affection being alienated or corrupted fills the soul with grief and indignation. So God commends the purity, the fervency, and the sincerity of his love to his Church by the most terrific expressions of jealousy. (See Idolatry).