Geneva

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King James Dictionary [1]

GENE'VA, n. A spirit distilled from grain or malt, with the addition of juniper berries. But instead of these berries,the spirit is now flavored with the oil of turpentine. The word is usually contracted and pronounced gin.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [2]

(French Geneve), capital of the Swiss canton of the same name, celebrated for its historical and religious associations, and in particular as the seat of the reformatory labors of Calvin. The canton had, in 1860, 82,876 inhabitants, of whom 40,069 were Protestants, 42,099 Roman Catholics, 331 Dissidents, 377 Jews. During the Middle Ages Geneva was an object of dispute between the bishop of Geneva, who was an immediate feudatory of the German empire, and the count of Genevois, who ruled the adjoining province of Savoy. After the extinction of the line of the counts of Genevois, the dukes of Savoy were appointed their successors by the German emperor Sigismund (1422). Hence the claim of Savoy upon Geneva, from which the Genevans could only free themselves by alliances with the Swiss cantons of Fribourg (1519) and Berne (1526), and by the aid of the Reformation. The latter was introduced into Geneva by Farel, Fromment, and others, about 1532, and in 1535 was officially established. Being put under the ban by the bishop, the city declared the episcopal see vacant, and declared itself a republic. Calvin first came to Geneva in 1536, and after an absence of a few years returned in 1541, when he soon succeeded in making himself the temporal as well as the spiritual ruler of the town. Thus Geneva became the metropolis of Calvinism, and, as such, exercised a great influence upon all the Calvinistic churches. From 1798 to 1814 Geneva was united with France; in 1814, its territory having been enlarged by the annexation of a few Savoyan and French communes, it joined the Swiss Confederation as the 22d canton. The Reformed State Church, which in 1868 had 16 congregations and 35 ministers, has for some time been under the influence of Rationalism, and a part of the orthodox members have therefore organized a Free Evangelical Church, which has a celebrated theological school, several of whose professors, as Merle d'Aubigne and Gaussen, have established a great theological reputation throughout the Protestant world. Thourel, Histoire de Geneve (Geneva, 1863); Cherbuliez, Geneve et les Genevois (Geneva, 1868). (A.J.S.)

The Nuttall Encyclopedia [3]

1. The smallest canton of Switzerland, situated at the western extremity of the lake of the name; the surface is hilly, but not mountainous, and is watered by the Rhône and Arve; the soil is unfertile, but the patient industry of the inhabitants has made it fruitful; the cultivation of the vine, fruit-growing, and the manufacture of watches, &c., are the chief industries; 85 per cent, of the people speak French. 2. Capital of the canton, occupies a splendid geographical position at the south-western end of the lake, at the exit of the Rhône; the town existed in Cæsar's time, and after being subject in turn to Rome and Burgundy, ere long won its independence in conjunction with Bern and Freiburg. In Calvin's time it became a centre of Protestantism, and its history, down to the time of its annexation by Napoleon in 1798, is mainly occupied with the struggles between the oligarchical and democratic factions. On the overthrow of Napoleon it joined the Swiss Confederation. Since 1847 the town has been largely rebuilt, and handsomely laid out. Among many fine buildings are the Transition Cathedral of St. Peter, the Academy founded by Calvin and others. The Rhône flows through it, and compasses an island which forms part of the city. It has many literary and historical associations, and was the birthplace of Rousseau.

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