From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [1]

Sennacherib's younger son, Sargon's grandson ( 2 Kings 19:37). (See Assyria .) After the murder of his father by his two sons, Esarhaddon the oldest surviving son succeeded, 680 B.C. The Assyrian inscriptions state that for some months after his accession he warred with his half brothers (Rawlinson, Ant. Monarchies, 2:186). The Greek Abydenus states the same. The Scripture is thus confirmed; for naturally Esarhaddon would seek to avenge his father's murder, and they would seek the throne. The Armenian records state that the two assassins, having escaped from the scene of conflict, took refuge in Armenia, where the king gave them lands which long continued in possession of their posterity (Mos. Choren., Hist. Arm., 1:22). Esarhaddon is famed for his expedition into Arabia. an undertaking with few parallels in history; for few conquerors have ventured to pass the barrier of Arabian deserts.

Esarhaddon was perhaps the most potent of the Assyrian kings, warring in the far East, according to the monuments, with Median tribes "of which his father had never heard the name"; extending his power W. to Cilicia and Cyprus, ten kings of which submitted to him. Southward he claimed authority over Egypt and Ethiopia; having driven the Ethiopian Tirhakah out of Egypt. Having conquered Merodach Baladan's sons, Esarhaddon made Babylon directly subject to the Assyrian crown, instead of being governed by viceroys, and as king of each of the two empires resided by turns at Nineveh and Babylon. He is the only Assyrian king who reigned at Babylon; the bricks of the palace he built there still bearing his name. A tablet also bears the date of his reign. Manasseh king of Judah is mentioned among his tributaries. Scripture by a striking minute coincidence with truth represents Manasseh as carried to Babylon, not to the Assyrian capital Nineveh; which would seem inexplicable but for the above fact, revealed by the monuments.

Esarhaddon's Babylonian reign lasted from 680 to 667 B.C., the very period when Manasseh was brought up by the Assyrian king's captains to Babylon on a charge of rebellion ( 2 Chronicles 33:11-19). By an unusual clemency on the part of an oriental king, Manasseh was restored to his throne, a marvelous proof of the power of prayer. The monuments tell us of a similar act of Esarhaddon whereby he gave a territory on the Persian gulf to Merodach Baladan's son, on his submission as a refugee at his court. Esarhaddon built three other palaces and 30 temples," shining with silver and gold," in different parts of his dominions. His S.W. palace at Nimrud, excavated by Layard, corresponds in plan to Solomon's temple but is larger, namely, the hall being 220 by 100 ft. and the antechamber 160 by 60. Unfortunately the sculptured stones and alabaster have been materially injured by fire.

He boasts of his S.W. palace of Nimrud that it was a building "such as the kings his fathers before him had never made." Ptolemy's canon shows he reigned 13 years in Babylon, and probably reigned in all 20 years, dying about 660 B.C. Assur-bani-pal, or Sardanapalus II, for whom Esarhaddon built a palace, succeeded, and caused the tablets to be collected which furnish us with such information; comparative vocabularies, lists of deities, records of astronomical observations, histories, scientific works. Saracus his son was attacked by the Scythians, then by the Medes and Cyaxares, and Nabopolassar his own general. Saracus burnt himself in his palace, and Nineveh was taken. (See Assyria .)

Esarhaddon (as G. Smith reads an inscription) about 672 B.C., marching from Asshur (Kileh Sherghat) to Tyre, besieged Bahal its king who was in league with Tirhakah, thence he marched to Aphek at the foot of Lebanon, then to Raphia S.W. of Judah, thence from Lower Egypt which was in his hands to Miruha or Meroe. Though distressed on the way by want of water, he at last drove Tirhakah out of Egypt.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [2]

Son of Sennacherib and grandson of Sargon. He succeeded Sennacherib as king of Assyria. He united Babylonia to Assyria without reducing it to a mere province, and resided at Nineveh and sometimes at Babylon. This will account for the captain of the Assyrians carrying Manasseh to Babylon. It was this king who sent foreigners to colonise Samaria.  2 Kings 19:37;  Ezra 4:2;  Isaiah 37:38 . From the records on the monuments he appears to have been one of the most powerful of the Assyrian kings. He calls himself "the great king, the powerful king, the king of legions, . . . . the just, the terrible . . . . who reigned from the rising of the sun to the setting of the sun." He says, "I counted among the vassals of my realm twelve kings of Syria, beyond the mountains: Balon, or Baal, king of Tyre; Manasseh, king of Judah ," etc. About B.C. 671 he conquered Egypt, took Memphis, and captured two of the king's sons. He divided Egypt into twenty provinces, placing some of them under native princes, and others under Assyrian governors with Assyrian troops. He reigned from B.C. 681 to 668.

Holman Bible Dictionary [3]

 2 Kings 19:36-37

Esarhaddon was an eminent military general who defeated Taharqa, Pharaoh of Egypt, in the process of conquering the entire country. Esarhaddon ruled Egypt through Assyrian advisors and Egyptian district commanders. However, Egyptian rebellion to Assyrian domination came quickly. An ill Esarhaddon was returning to Egypt to squelch the rebellion when he died en route in 669 B.C.

There are many references to Esarhaddon in the Bible ( 2 Kings 19:36-37;  Ezra 4:2;  Isaiah 19:4;  Isaiah 37:37-38 ). In  Isaiah 19:4 he is probably the “cruel lord” and “fierce king” who conquered Egypt. In   Ezra 4:2 he is recognized as the king who colonized Samaria. See Assyria.

M. Stephen Davis

Easton's Bible Dictionary [4]

 2 Kings 19:37 Isaiah 37:38 Ezra 4:2 1 Kings 7:1-12

In December B.C. 681Sennacherib was murdered by two of his sons, who, after holding Nineveh for forty-two days, were compelled to fly to Erimenas of Ararat, or Armenia. Their brother Esarhaddon, who had been engaged in a campaign against Armenia, led his army against them. They were utterly overthrown in a battle fought April B.C. 680, near Malatiyeh, and in the following month Esarhaddon was crowned at Nineveh. He restored Babylon, conquered Egypt, and received tribute from Manasseh of Judah. He died in October B.C. 668, while on the march to suppress an Egyptian revolt, and was succeeded by his son Assur-bani-pal, whose younger brother was made viceroy of Babylonia.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [5]

ESARHADDON , son and successor of Sennacherib (  2 Kings 19:37 ,   Isaiah 37:38 ), reigned over Assyria b.c. 682 669. He practically re-founded Babylon, which Sennacherib had destroyed, and was a great restorer of temples. He was also a great conqueror, making three expeditions to Egypt, and finally conquered the whole North, garrisoning the chief cities and appointing vassal kings. He subdued all Syria, and received tribute from Manasseh, and   Ezra 4:2 mentions his colonization of Samaria. He ruled over Babylonia as well as Assyria, which explains the statement of   2 Chronicles 33:1 that Manasseh was carried captive there.

C. H. W. Johns.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [6]

ē - sar - had´on ( אסרחדּן , 'eṣar - ḥaddōn  ; Assyrian Ašur - ah̬ - iddina , "Ashur hath given a brother"): During his lifetime, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, made his favorite son, Esarhaddon (680-668 bc), the viceroy of Babylon; and although he was not the eldest son, he decreed that he should become the legal heir to the throne of Assyria. Sennacherib, having been slain in 681, apparently by two of his sons, who are called in the Old Testament Adrammelech and Sharezer ( 2 Kings 19:37 ), Esarhaddon proceeded to Nineveh, where the rebellion which followed the death of his father collapsed, having existed for about a month and a half. The Old Testament informs us that the murderers of his father fled to Armenia. This is corroborated by the inscriptions which say that at Melid, in the land of Hanirabbat, which can be said to be in Armenia, Esarhaddon fought the rebels and defeated them; whereupon he was proclaimed king. His father had been so displeased with Babylon that he had attempted to annihilate the city by making it a swamp. Esarhaddon, however, having been infatuated with the ancient culture of the Babylonians, adopted a conciliatory attitude toward the people. Immediately he planned to restore the city on magnificent proportions. The foundations of his work were laid with impressive ceremonies, and in every way he endeavored to ameliorate the inhabitants by his gracious deeds. Even at Nippur evidences of his work in restoring the ancient shrine of Ellil are seen. The kings of the West who became his vassals, among them being Manasseh of Judah, were required to furnish building materials for his operations in Babylonia. His work in that land explains why the Judean king was incarcerated at Babylon ( 2 Chronicles 33:11 ) instead of Assyria.

Esarhaddon was first compelled to defend the kingdom against the inroads of the hordes from the North. The Gimirrá (perhaps referring to Gomer of the Old Testament), who were called Manda, seemed to pour into the land. A decisive victory was finally gained over them, and they were driven back into their own country. Afterward, the Medes and the Chaldeans were also subjugated. He then directed his attentions toward the West. Sidon having revolted against Assyria, Esarhaddon laid siege to the city, which after three years was finally captured and destroyed. He built another city upon the same site, which he called Kar-Esarhaddon, and endeavored to revive its commerce. And, as is mentioned in   Ezra 4:2; compare 10, he repopulated the city (Samaria) with captives from Elam and Babylonia.

The capture of Tyre was also attempted, but, the city being differently situated, a siege from the land was insufficient to bring about submission, as it was impossible to cut off the commerce by sea. The siege, after several years, seems to have been lifted. Although on a great monolith Esarhaddon depicts Ba'al, the king of Tyre, kneeling before him with a ring through his lips, there is nothing in the inscriptions to bear this out.

His work in Canaan was preparatory to his conquest of Egypt. Tirhakah, the Ethiopian king of Egypt, was attacked on the borders, but no victory was gained. Several years later he crossed the borders and gained a decisive victory at Iskhupri. He then proceeded to lay siege to Memphis, which soon capitulated; and Egypt, to the confines of Nubia, surrendered to Assyria. Esarhaddon reorganized the government, and even changed the names of the cities. Necoh was placed over the 22 princes of the land. In 668, Egypt revolted and Esarhaddon, while on his way to put down the revolt, died. He had arranged that the kingdom be divided between two of his sons: Ashurbanipal was to be king of Assyria, and Shamash-shum-ukin was to reign over Babylonia. The nobles decreed, however, that the empire should not be divided, but Shamash-shum-ukin was made viceroy of Babylonia.