From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

DISH. 1. The only place in the NT (Authorized and Revised Versions) where this word is found is in the record of the betrayal of Jesus given by two of the Synoptists ( Matthew 26:23,  Mark 14:20).

The form of the Greek equivalent (τρύβλιον, Vulgate catinum [ Mark 14:20], but in  Matthew 26:23 Vulgate has paropsis , for which see below) is that of a diminutive, although there is no example of a cognate or simpler form (see Liddell and Scott, s.v. ). With it we may compare the diminutive ψωμίον ( John 13:26 ff.) in the latest Apostolic account of the same period of Jesus’ life. The use of this word, as well as of another (ἑμβάττειν) occurring in the same context, by these two authors would seem to prove beyond doubt a close literary relationship between their writings—not, indeed, a relationship of direct inter-dependence (cf. Wright’s Synopsis of the Gospels in Greek , p. 140), but rather one of common dependence upon the same or kindred sources, oral or written (cf. the ‘anonymous fragment’ μήτι ἐγώ εἰμι, ῥαββεί;  Matthew 26:25).

A comparative study of the four records which tell of Jesus’ reference to His impending betrayal brings to light some not unimportant minor differences, and at the same time reveals the agreement of all the writers in the belief that He knew of the intentions of Judas, and warned the latter against the dark deed. To the Markan account which makes Jesus answer the anxious question of His disciples (μήτι ἐγώ;) by the vague statement, ‘(it is) one of the twelve who is (now) dipping with me in the dish,’ which is equivalent to the previous ὁ ἐσθίων μετʼ ἐμοῦ ( Mark 14:18; on this, however, cf. Gould’s St. Mark, ad loc .), St. Matthew not only adds a more distinct note by employing the aorist (ἐμβάψας) instead of the present Middle (ἐμβαπτόμενος), by which he evidently intended to convey the idea of time, but he also informs us that Jesus gave a direct affirmative reply (σὺ εἶπας) to Judas’ question. On the other hand, St. Luke agrees with St. Mark in leaving out all reference to an indication of the traitor beyond the statement that one of those present at the meal (ἐπὶ τῆς τραπέζης,  Luke 22:21) was guilty, while the author of the Fourth Gospel agrees with St. Matthew in making Jesus, by a sign (ἐκεῖνός ἐστιν ᾧ ἐγὼ βάψω τὸ ψωμίον καὶ δώσω αὐτῷ,  John 13:26), point him out to his fellow-disciples.

One thing seems to emerge clearly from the fourfold account, there was but one τρύβλιον on the table, and each one dipped his bread into it as he ate (see O. Holtzmann’s Leben Jesu , English translation p. 458). This dish contained a sour-sweet sauce (חֲרוֹסָתְ), which was composed of ‘a cake of fruit beaten up and mingled with vinegar’ (see Encyc. Bibl . art. ‘Passover, § 17n; cf., however, B. Weiss’ The Life of Christ , iii. p. 279). Into the sauce pieces of unleavened bread and bitter herbs were dipped and handed round by the chief person of the assembled party, which was evidently preliminary to the general partaking of the dish (cf. μετʼ ἐμοῦ,  Matthew 26:23 =  Mark 14:20). It seems that this was a custom of late introduction into the Passover rite, and that it was intended to enrich the meaning of the feast by a symbolic reference to the brick-making period of Israel’s Egyptian bondage (see art. ‘Passover’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible iii. p. 691b).

Most scholars have sought to establish the relative positions of Jesus and Judas at this Passover feast from the incidents referred to by all four Evangelists (cf. Edersheim’s Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah , ii. pp. 493–507; art. ‘Apostle John’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible ii. p. 681a; Farrar’s Life of Christ , ii. 284 ff. etc.). The variety of conclusions arrived at shows how impossible it is to settle a question of the kind. If, indeed, opposite each triclinium at the table there had been a τρύβλιον, then the answer of Jesus to His disciples’ questions would show clearly that Judas reclined immediately on His left. This, however, as we have already intimated, is not probable; and the only data by which an approximately correct impression may be received lie in the words spoken by Jesus to Judas himself, and recorded partly by St. Matthew and partly by St. John (cf.  Matthew 26:25 and  John 13:27 ff.). It seems more than probable that the traitor reclined somewhere in close proximity to Jesus, that their hands met as both dipped together into the dish (cf. the use of the Middle voice by St. Mark; see Bengel’s Gnomon of NT on  Mark 14:20), and that in this way Jesus was able to convey privately to Judas the fact that He knew of the latter’s intention.

2. A very good example of the way in which the didactic sayings of Jesus were caught up and handed down by His different hearers is afforded by the Matthaean and Lukan versions of the words by which He denounced the legal quibblings and Pharisaic hypocrisy of His day ( Matthew 23:1 ff.,  Luke 11:37 ff.). There is just sufficient identity both in language and sense to guarantee the genuineness of the teaching. At the same time there is a marked variety in details as to locality, wording, and even as to the particular objective of Jesus’ remarks. According to St. Luke, Jesus denounces the Pharisees, while a guest in the house of one of their number, for their punctiliousness in keeping the outside of their vessels clean, their own hearts all the time being full of uncleanness. The contrast is between the outside of their utensils (τὸ ἔξωθεν … τοῦ πίνακος) and their own inner lives or characters (τὸ δὲ ἔσωθεν ὑμῶν,  Luke 11:39). Here we may notice that the word translated ‘platter’ is the word used to denote the flat dish (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘charger’) on which (ἐπὶ πίνακι) the Baptist’s head was sent to Herodias ( Matthew 14:8;  Matthew 14:11 =  Mark 6:25;  Mark 6:28). On the other hand, St. Matthew makes Jesus utter this discourse to ‘the multitudes and to his disciples’ in the Temple ( Matthew 23:1; cf.  Matthew 24:1). The denunciation is more sustained and rhetorical, as becomes the situation. When the writer comes to the contrast spoken of above, he makes Jesus institute one between the outside of the dish and its contents, looked on as the outcome of rapacity and gluttony (ἐξ ἁρπαγῆς καὶ ἀκρασίας). This is again more suitable to the word he employs, which is the only place in the NT where it is found (τὸ ἔξωθεν … τῆς παροψίδος stands opposite to ἔσωθεν = τὸ ἐντὸς … τῆς παροψίδος, see  Matthew 23:25 f.; cf., however, WH’s [Note: H’s Westcott and Hort’s text.] text in  Matthew 23:26).

The word ταροψίς was originally, in Attic Greek, used of entrées or dainties (see Liddell and Scott, s.v. ). It afterwards came to be applied to the four-cornered (‘quadrangulum et quadrilaterum vas,’ see art. ‘Meals’ in Encyc. Bibl . iii. 2998, n. [Note: note.] 1) dish in which they were served; and, lastly, it became a name for dishes generally used at table.

In both these cases of variation it is possible to see the hand of the editor carefully compiling and arranging his materials before their publication in permanent form.

J. R. Willis.

Webster's Dictionary [2]

(1): ( n.) That portion of the produce of a mine which is paid to the land owner or proprietor.

(2): ( n.) A trough about 28 inches long, 4 deep, and 6 wide, in which ore is measured.

(3): ( n.) A vessel, as a platter, a plate, a bowl, used for serving up food at the table.

(4): ( n.) The food served in a dish; hence, any particular kind of food; as, a cold dish; a warm dish; a delicious dish. "A dish fit for the gods."

(5): ( n.) The state of being concave, or like a dish, or the degree of such concavity; as, the dish of a wheel.

(6): ( n.) A hollow place, as in a field.

(7): ( v. t.) To frustrate; to beat; to ruin.

(8): ( v. t.) To make concave, or depress in the middle, like a dish; as, to dish a wheel by inclining the spokes.

(9): ( v. t.) To put in a dish, ready for the table.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [3]

1: Τρύβλιον (Strong'S #5165 — Noun Neuter — trublion — troob'-lee-on )

denotes "a bowl," somewhat deep,  Matthew 26:23;  Mark 14:20; among the Greeks it was a measure in medical prescriptions.

King James Dictionary [4]

DISH, n. Gr., L. It is the same word as disk and desk, and seems to signify something flat, plain or extended.

1. A broad open vessel, made of various materials, used for serving up meat and various kinds of food at the table. It is sometimes used for a deep hollow vessel for liquors. 2. The meat or provisions served in a dish. Hence, any particular kind of food.

I have here a dish of doves.

We say, a dish of veal or venison a cold dish a warm dish a delicious dish.

3. Among miners, a trough in which ore is measure, about 28 inches long, 4 deep and 6 wide.

DISH, To put in a dish as, the meat is all dished, and ready for the table.

Holman Bible Dictionary [5]

 Judges 5:25 Judges 6:38 2 Kings 21:13 Exodus 25:29 Exodus 37:16 Numbers 4:7 Numbers 7:13 Leviticus 15:12 Matthew 26:23 Mark 14:20

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [6]

Guests handled food with their fingers. Each dips a "sop" or piece of bread in the dish, and takes up therewith a portion of meat or other contents of the dish. Judas' dipping in the same dish as the Lord betokened friendly intimacy. To hand a delicate morsel from the dish was a compliment ( John 13:25-27;  Matthew 26:23).

Easton's Bible Dictionary [7]

 2 Kings 21:13 Matthew 26:23 Judges 5:25  Judges 6:38

The dishes of the tabernacle were made of pure gold (  Exodus 25:29;  37:16 ).

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [8]

DISH . See Charger; House, § 9  ; Meals, § 5  ; and Tabernacle, § 5 ( a ).

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [9]

Fig. 149—Egyptian Dishes

Various kinds of dishes are mentioned in Scripture; but it is impossible to form any other idea of their particular forms than may be suggested by those of ancient Egypt and of the modern East, which have much resemblance to each other. The sites of such ancient towns as were built of sun-dried bricks are usually covered with broken potsherds, some of them large enough to indicate the form of the entire vessel. These are remarkably similar to those in modern use, and are for the most part made of a rather coarse earthenware, covered with a compact and strong glaze, with bright colors, mostly green, blue, or yellow. Dishes and other vessels of copper, coarsely but thickly tinned, are now much used in the East; but how far this may have been anciently the case we have not the means of knowing. The above figure represents a slave bringing dishes to table; the dishes have covers, and the manner in which they are carried on the reverted hand is the mode still used by Eastern servants.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [10]

The rendering in English Versions of the Bible in some connections of three Hebrew and one Greek word. The ḳe‛ārāh of  Exodus 25:29;  Exodus 37:16;  Numbers 4:7 was apparently a kind of salver, in this case of gold, for holding the loaves of the "presence bread." The same word represents the silver "platters" (  Numbers 7:13 ) brought by the princes as a dedication gift. The ṣēphel of  Judges 5:25 was a large bowl, so translated in   Judges 6:38 . "Lordly dish" is literally, " bowl of (fit for) nobles ." The callaḥath of  2 Kings 21:13;  Proverbs 19:24;  Proverbs 26:15 (last two the King James Version "bosom" after the Septuagint) refers probably to the wide, deep dish in which the principal part of the meal was served. Of somewhat similar form may have been the trúblion (Septuagint for ḳe‛ārāh ) mentioned in connection with the Passover meal ( Matthew 26:23;  Mark 14:20 ).

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [11]

Bibliography Information McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Dish'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.