From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Webster's Dictionary [1]

(1): ( n.) A geometrical figure, consisting of four equal straight lines, and having two of the interior angles acute and two obtuse; a rhombus; a lozenge.

(2): ( n.) A pointed projection, like a four-sided pyramid, used for ornament in lines or groups.

(3): ( n.) A precious stone or gem excelling in brilliancy and beautiful play of prismatic colors, and remarkable for extreme hardness.

(4): ( n.) One of a suit of playing cards, stamped with the figure of a diamond.

(5): ( a.) Resembling a diamond; made of, or abounding in, diamonds; as, a diamond chain; a diamond field.

(6): ( n.) The smallest kind of type in English printing, except that called brilliant, which is seldom seen.

(7): ( n.) The infield; the square space, 90 feet on a side, having the bases at its angles.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [2]

  • A precious stone (Heb. shamir', a sharp point) mentioned in  Jeremiah 17:1 . From its hardness it was used for cutting and perforating other minerals. It is rendered "adamant" (q.v.) in  Ezekiel 3:9 ,  Zechariah 7:12 . It is the hardest and most valuable of precious stones.

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Diamond'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ebd/d/diamond.html. 1897.

  • American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [3]

    The hardest and most brilliant of gems, very rare and costly. The largest diamonds known in the world, procured from India and Brazil, are guarded among the royal treasures of England, Russia, etc., and valued at immense sums. Common diamonds are used not only for ornaments, but for cutting and graving hard substances,  Jeremiah 17:1 . The Hebrew word here used is called "adamant" in  Ezekiel 3:9   Zechariah 7:12 . See  Exodus 28:18   39:11   Ezekiel 28:13 , and thought by some to mean the topaz. The diamond is carbon in its purest and crystalline form.

    King James Dictionary [4]

    Diamond n. Dimond. L., Gr. See Adamant.

    1. A mineral, gem or precious stone, of the most valuable kind, remarkable for its hardness, as it scratches all other minerals. When pure, the diamond is usually clear and transparent, but it is sometimes colored. In its rough state, it is commonly in the form of a roundish pebble, or of octahedral crystals. It consists of carbon, and when heated to 14 degrees Wedgewood, and exposed to a current of air, it is gradually, but completely combustible. When pure and transparent, it is said to be of the first water. 2. A very small printing letter. 3. A figure, otherwise called a rhombus.

    DIAMOND, a. Resembling a diamond, as a diamond color or consisting of diamonds, as a diamond chain.

    Smith's Bible Dictionary [5]

    Diamond. (Hebrew, yahalom ). A gem of crystallized carbon, the most valued and brilliant of precious stones, remarkable for its hardness, the third precious stone in the second row on the breastplate of the high priest,  Exodus 28:18;  Exodus 39:11, and mentioned by Ezekiel,  Ezekiel 28:13, among the precious stones of the king of Tyre. Some suppose yahalom to be the "emerald." Respecting shamir , which is translated "Diamond" in  Jeremiah 17:1, see under Adamant .

    People's Dictionary of the Bible [6]

    Diamond. One of the gems in the high priest's breastplate is so called in our version.  Exodus 28:18;  Exodus 39:11. The same word also occurs in reference to the king of Tyre.  Ezekiel 28:13. It was doubtless some hard stone; for the original Hebrew term implies striking. But it is questionable whether, in the early ages of the world, the art or cutting and engraving the diamond was understood. It is, therefore, more generally supposed that an onyx or some other hard crystal is here meant.

    Holman Bible Dictionary [7]

    Yahelom   Exodus 28:18 Ezekiel 28:13 Shamir   Jeremiah 17:1 Ezekiel 3:9 Zechariah 7:12

    Apparently Alexander the Great around 330 B.C. first discovered diamonds for the western world in India. This would indicate “diamonds” are not meant in the Old Testament references. Emery stones or adamant stones were widely used for engraving. Emery was a variety of corundum and was composed of aluminum oxide.

    Morrish Bible Dictionary [8]

    The Hebrew word in  Exodus 28:18;  Exodus 39:11;  Ezekiel 28:13 , is yahalom . It occurs only in these places, and cannot be identified; it is generally held not to be what is now known as the diamond. In  Jeremiah 17:1 the word is shamir . This is translated 'adament' in  Ezekiel 3:9 . It is thought to be the corundum, a very hard stone, but being of different hues it has now various names.

    Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [9]

    יהלם .  Exodus 28:18;  Exodus 29:11;  Ezekiel 28:13 . This has from remote antiquity been considered as the most valuable, or, more properly, the most costly substance in nature. The reason of the high estimation in which it was held by the ancients was its rarity and its extreme hardness and brilliancy. It filled the sixth place in the high priest's breastplate, and on it was engraven the name of Naphtali.

    Fausset's Bible Dictionary [10]

    Third in the second row of precious stones on the high priest's breast-plate ( Exodus 28:18). Υahalim , which some translate "onyx," others translate it as "jasper." There is no proof the diamond was then known. Its engraving is very difficult, and the large size of the stones on the high priest's breast-plate makes it not probable the diamond is meant. Shamir is the usual term. (See Adamant .)

    Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [11]

     Jeremiah 17:1 (a) This is a figure of the indelible record which sin makes upon the pages of GOD's book, and upon the heart, soul and life of the wicked person.

    Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [12]

    DIAMOND . See Adamant, and Jewels and Precious Stones.

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [13]

    occurs in the Auth. Vers. as the translation of two Heb. words. (See Gem).

    1. יִהֲלם ( Yahalom´ , so called from Beating , with allusion to its hardness), a precious gem, placed sixth in the breastplate of the high-priest, with the name of Naphtali carved on it ( Exodus 28:18;  Exodus 39:11), and mentioned in  Ezekiel 28:13; among the precious stones of the king of Tyre. The Sept. and Vulg. understand by it the jasper; several of the ancient versions render it by onyx, which is not improbable; still others by adamant, which is less likely. There is much reason to doubt whether the diamond vas known in the time of Moses (see below). Our translation "diamond" is derived from Aben Ezra, and is defended by Braun (Vest. Sacerd. 2:13). Kalisch (on Exodus p. 536) says "perhaps emerald." (See Onyx).

    2. שָׁמַיר ( Shamir´ , a sharp point; hence often a brier), a precious stone, named in  Jeremiah 17:1;  Ezekiel 3:9;  Zechariah 7:12. The Sept. in Jeremiah, and the Vulg. in all the passages, take it for the diamond. The signification of the word (from שָׁמִר , to pierce) countenances this interpretation, the diamond being, for its hardness, used in perforating and cutting other minerals. Indeed, this use of the shamir is distinctly alluded to in the passage in Jeremiah, where the stylus pointed with it is distinguished from one of iron (comp. Pliny, Hist. Nat. 37:15). The two other passages also favor this view by using it figuratively to express the hardness and obduracy of the Israelites. Our version has "diamond" in  Jeremiah 17:1, and "adamant" in the other texts. Bochart, however ( Hieroz . 3, 843 sq.), rejects the usual explanation, and, comparing the word shamir with the Greek Σμῖρις or Σμῦρις , conceives it to mean "emery." This is a calcined iron mixed with siliceous earth, occurring in livid scales of such hardness that in ancient times, as at present, it was used for polishing and engraving precious stones, diamonds excepted (Hoffmann, Mineral . 1:561 sq.). Bohlen suggests an Indian origin of the word, and compares asmirla, stone which eats, spoken of gems, iron, etc. from their hardness. Rosenm Ü ller is in favor of the diamond in his Scholia, but in his Alterthumskunde he takes up Bochart's notion, and urges that if the Hebrews had been acquainted with the diamond, and the manner of working it, we should doubtless have found it among the stones of the high-priest's breastplate; and that, as the shamir was not one of the stones thus employed, therefore it was not the diamond. But to this it may be replied that it was perhaps not used because it could not be engraved on, or was possibly not introduced until a later period. The argument drawn from the rarity of the word in the Old Testament is of little weight, and there is no necessity for seeking an Oriental origin of the word Σμῦρις , or ground for considering it identical with Shamir , as it may easily be traced from the Greek itself (see Passow, s.v.; Eichhorn, De Gemmis Sculpt. Hebr .). For an account of the diamond of the ancients, see Moore's Ancient Mineralogy , p. 143-145. (See Adamant).

    The diamond is the hardest and most valuable of the precious stones, and for many ages was considered indestructible by fire or any other means; modern chemistry, however, has proved that at a heat rather below that required to melt silver it is gradually dissipated or burned. It is, in fact, nothing but pure carbon, but in a more highly crystallized state than coal. In former times, all the diamonds that were known were brought from different parts of India, particularly from the famous mine of Golconda, near Hyderabad, the present capital of the Deccan, in Hindostan; the islands of Molucca and Borneo have also produced many valuable stones. The diamond mines of Golconda are now so far exhausted as to be considered not worth the expense of working, and the diamonds which are brought to Europe come chiefly from Brazil. They are always found in an alluvial soil, generally gravel, resting on granite, and not imbedded in any other substance, but appear like small pebbles, with the surface flattened in many parts.

    Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [14]

    The diamond is named in the Authorized Version as one of the stones in the breastplate of the high priest . But as these stones were engraved, it is by no means likely that the original word (yahalom) really denotes the diamond; and it is generally understood that the onyx is intended. The diamond again occurs in the Authorized Version of;;; and in these places the word (shamir) is different from the above, and its signification, 'a sharp point,' countenances this interpretation, the diamond being for its hardness used in perforating and cutting other minerals. Indeed, this use of the shamir is distinctly alluded to in , where the stylus pointed with it is distinguished from one of iron (comp. Plin. Hist. Nat. xxxvii. 15). The two other passages also favor this view by using it figuratively to express the hardness and obduracy of the Israelites. Our Authorized Version has 'diamond' in , and 'adamant' in the other texts: but in the original the word is the same in all.

    The Nuttall Encyclopedia [15]

    The name of Newton's favourite dog that, by upsetting a lamp, set fire to MSS. containing notes of experiments made over a course of years, an irreparable loss.