Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words 
see under Accusation , A, No. 1.
"to have," is idiomatically used in the sense of being in a case or condition, as with the infirm man at the pool of Bethesda, John 5:6 , lit., "that he had already much time (in that case)."
lit., "to have before," in the Middle Voice, Romans 3:9 , is rightly translated "are we in worse case?" (RV), as is borne out by the context. See Better (be), Note (1).
1—Corinthians 9:15 1—Corinthians 14:11 1—John 4:16 Matthew 5:20
King James Dictionary 
1. A covering, box or sheath that which incloses or contains as a case for knives a case for books a watch case a printers case a pillow case. 2. The outer part of a building. 3. A certain quantity as a case of crown glass. 4. A building unfurnished.
1. To cover with a case to surround with any material that shall inclose or defend. 2. To put in a case or box. 3. To strip off a case, covering, or the skin.
CASE, n. Literally, that which falls, comes, or happens an event. Hence, the particular state, condition, or circumstances that befall a person, or in which he is placed as, make the case your own this is the case with my friend this is his present case.
2. The state of the body, with respect to health or disease as a case of fever he is in a consumptive case his case is desperate.
To be in good case, is to be fat, and this phrase is customarily abridged, to be in case applied to beasts, but not to men, except in a sense rather ludicrous.
3. A question a state of facts involving a question for discussion or decision as, the lawyer stated the case. 4. A cause or suit in court as, the case was tried at the last term. In this sense, case is nearly synonymous with cause, whose primary sense is nearly the same. 5. In grammar, the inflection of nouns, or a change of termination, to express a difference of relation in the word to others, or to the thing represented. The variation of nouns and adjectives is called declension both case and declension signifying, falling or leaning from the first state of the word. Thus, liber is a book libri, of a book libro, to a book. In other words, case denotes a variation in the termination of a noun, to show how the noun acts upon the verb with which it is connected, or is acted upon by it, or by an agent. The cases, except the nominative, are called oblique cases.
In case, is a phrase denoting condition or supposition literally, in the event or contingency if it should so fall out or happen.
Put the case, suppose the event, or a certain state of things.
Action on the case, in law, is an action in which the whole cause of complaint is set out in the writ.
Webster's Dictionary 
(1): (n.) A box and its contents; the quantity contained in a box; as, a case of goods; a case of instruments.
(2): (n.) A small fissure which admits water to the workings.
(3): (n.) Chance; accident; hap; opportunity.
(4): (n.) A box, sheath, or covering; as, a case for holding goods; a case for spectacles; the case of a watch; the case (capsule) of a cartridge; a case (cover) for a book.
(5): (v. t.) To strip the skin from; as, to case a box.
(6): (n.) A shallow tray divided into compartments or "boxes" for holding type.
(7): (n.) That which befalls, comes, or happens; an event; an instance; a circumstance, or all the circumstances; condition; state of things; affair; as, a strange case; a case of injustice; the case of the Indian tribes.
(8): (n.) A patient under treatment; an instance of sickness or injury; as, ten cases of fever; also, the history of a disease or injury.
(9): (n.) The matters of fact or conditions involved in a suit, as distinguished from the questions of law; a suit or action at law; a cause.
(10): (n.) One of the forms, or the inflections or changes of form, of a noun, pronoun, or adjective, which indicate its relation to other words, and in the aggregate constitute its declension; the relation which a noun or pronoun sustains to some other word.
(11): (v. i.) To propose hypothetical cases.
(12): (v. t.) To cover or protect with, or as with, a case; to inclose.
(13): (n.) An inclosing frame; a casing; as, a door case; a window case.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 
kās αἰτία aitı́a Matthew 19:10 Acts 25:14 res Exodus 5:19