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Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [1]

( Ἀριαράθης , apparently compounded of the Persian prefix Ari-, the essential element of the old national name Σαριοι Or Σαρειοι , Herod. 3, 93; 7:762; signifying "honorable;" see Dr. Rosen, in the Quar. Jour. of Educa. 9, 336; and the Zend ratu, "master," Bopp, Vergleichende Grammatik, p. 196; Pott, Etymologische Forschungen, p. 36), a common name of the kings of Cappadocia (see Smith's Diet. of Class. Biog. s.v.), one of whom is named in the Apocrypha ( 1 Maccabees 15:22), as ruling that country during the time of the Jewish governor Simon, about B.C. 139. (See Attalus).

The king there designated is doubtless Ariarathes V, surnamed Philopator ( Φιλοπάτωρ , Lover Of Hisfather), who reigned B.C. 163-130, called Mithridates before his accession (Diod. 31, or vol. 10, p. 25, ed. Bip.), who was supported by Attalus II in his contest with the pretendent to the throne, Holofernes or Orophernes (Polyb. 3, 5; 32:20; Appian, Syr. 47; Justin. 35:1), but was hard pressed by the Syrian King Demetrius. Having been reinstated on his throne by the Romans, among whom he had been brought up (4:42:19), he sent his son Demetrius, in connection with Attalus of Pergamos, to assist Ptolemy Philometor against the usurper Alexander Balas, B.C. 152 (Justin. 35:1). (See Alexander).

After a reign of thirty-three years he fell in battle, B.C. 130, while aiding the Romans against Aristonicus, prince of Pergamos, who had inherited the throne of his father Attalus III (Justin. 36:4; 37:1; Liv. Epit. 59). Letters were addressed to him from Rome in favor of the Jews ( 1 Maccabees 15:22), who in after times seem to have been numerous in his kingdom ( Acts 2:9; comp.  1 Peter 1:1).