Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary 
This seems to have been a common name of the princes of Amalek, one of whom was very powerful as early as the time of Moses, Numbers 24:7 . On account of the cruelties exercised by this king and his army against the Israelites, as they returned from Egypt a bloody and long contested battle took place between Joshua and the Amalekites, in which the former was victorious, Exodus 17:8-13 . At the same time, God protested with an oath to destroy Amalek, Exodus 17:14-16; Deuteronomy 25:17-19 , A.M. 2513. About four hundred years after this, the Lord remembered the cruel treatment of his people, and his own oath; and he commanded Saul, by the mouth of Samuel, to destroy the Amalekites. Saul mustered his army, and found it two hundred thousand strong, 1 Samuel 15:1 , &c. Having entered into their country, he cut in pieces all he could meet with from Havilah to Shur. Agag their king, and the best of their cattle, were however spared, an act of disobedience on the part of Saul, probably dictated by covetousness. But Agag did not long, enjoy this reprieve; for Samuel no sooner heard that he was alive, than he sent for him; and notwithstanding his insinuating address, and the vain hopes with which he flattered himself that the bitterness of death was past, he caused him to be hewed to pieces in Gilgal before the Lord, saying, "As
באשר , in the same identical mode as, thy sword hath made women childless, so shall thy mother be childless among women." This savage chieftain had hewed many prisoners to death; and, therefore, by command of the Judge of the whole earth, he was visited with the same punishment which he had inflicted upon others.
Smith's Bible Dictionary 
A'gag. (Flame). Possibly the title of the kings of Amalek, like Pharaoh of Egypt. One king of this name is mentioned in Numbers 24:7, and another in 1 Samuel 15:8-9; 1 Samuel 15:20; 1 Samuel 15:32. The latter was the king of the Amalekites, whom Saul spared contrary to Jehovah's well-known will. Exodus 17:14; Exodus 25:17.
For this act of disobedience, Samuel was commissioned to declare to Saul, his rejection, and he himself sent for Agag and cut him in pieces. (B.C. about 1070). See Samuel . Haman is called the Agagite in Esther 3:1; Esther 3:10; Esther 8:3; Esther 8:5. The Jews consider him a descendant of Agag, the Amalekite.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary 
("fiery one"; compare Arabic "burn".) A common title of the Amalekite kings; as Pharaoh of the Egyptian. Numbers 24:7 implies their greatness at that time. Saul's sparing the Agag of his time ( 1 Samuel 15:32) contrary to God's command, both then and from the first ( Exodus 17:14; Deuteronomy 25:17-19), because of Amalek's having intercepted Israel in the desert, so as to defeat the purpose of God Himself concerning His people, entailed on Saul loss of his throne and life. Agag came to Samuel "delicately" (rather contentedly, pleasantly), confident of his life being spared. But Samuel executed retributive justice (as in the case of Adonibezek, Judges 1), hewing him to pieces, and so making his mother childless, as he had made other women childless by hewing their sons to pieces (in consonance with his fiery character, as Agag means). This retribution in kind explains the unusual mode of execution. Haman the Agagite ( Esther 3:1-10; Esther 8:3-5) was thought by the Jews his descendant, whence sprung his hatred to their race.
Holman Bible Dictionary 
Old Testament Agag, whose name means “fiery one,” was king of the Amalekites, a tribal people living in the Negev and in the Sinai peninsula. The Amalekites had attacked the Israelites in the wilderness and were therefore cursed ( Exodus 17:14 ). In 1 Samuel 15:8 , Saul destroyed all the Amalekites but King Agag. Since the Lord had ordered the complete destruction of the Amalekites, Samuel, Saul's priest, rebuked Saul for his disobedience and reported God's rejection of Saul as king. Then Samuel himself executed Agag.
In Numbers 24:7 , Agag is used to refer to the Amalekite people. Agag was a common name among Amalekite kings much as Pharaoh among Egyptian rulers.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary 
1. A general name of the kings of the Amalekites; apparently like Pharaoh for the Egyptian kings, Numbers 1:1-36:13 24:7 1 Samuel 15:8 . The last one mentioned in Scripture was "hewed in pieces" by Samuel, before the Lord, because Saul had sinfully spared him and the flocks and herds, when ordered utterly to exterminate them. He seems to have incurred an uncommon punishment by infamous cruelties, 1 Samuel 15:33
2. Agagite, in Esther 3:1,10 8:3,5 is used to mark the nation whence Haman sprung. Josephus explains the word by Amalekite.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible 
AGAG . 1 . Numbers 24:7 , probably a copyist’s error: LXX [Note: Septuagint.] has Gog . 2 . 1 Samuel 15:1-35 , the king of Amalek, whom Saul defeated and spared; some Gr. MSS name his father Aser ( 1 Samuel 15:33 ). Whether he met his fate bravely or timidly cannot be determined from the extant text ( 1 Samuel 15:32 ). Samuel considered him to be under the ban of extermination, and therefore killed him as a religious act ( 1 Samuel 15:33 ).
People's Dictionary of the Bible 
Agag ( Â'G Ăg ), Flame. 1. The name or title of a powerful king of the Amalekites, who was contemporary with Moses. Numbers 24:7. 2. An Amalekite king, who was conquered by Saul, and put to death by Samuel for his cruelty. 1 Samuel 15:8-33. The term "Agagite" signifies an Amalekite. Esther 3:1; Esther 3:10; Esther 8:3; Esther 8:5.
Easton's Bible Dictionary 
- A king of the Amalekites referred to by Balaam ( Numbers 24:7 ). He lived at the time of the Exodus.
- Another king of the Amalekites whom Saul spared unlawfully, but whom Samuel on his arrival in the camp of Saul ordered, in retributive justice ( Judges 1 ), to be brought out and cut in pieces (1Samuel 15:8-33. Compare Exodus 17:11; Numbers 14:45 ).
Morrish Bible Dictionary 
King of the Amalekites whom Saul should have killed, but whom he spared. Samuel slew him, declaring that as Agag's sword had made women childless so his mother should now be childless. 1 Samuel 15:8-33 . The name also occurs in Numbers 24:7 , where Balaam said of Israel "his king shall be higher than Agag." It is supposed that 'Agag' was the common title of the kings of the Amalekites, as Pharaoh was that of the Egyptians.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types 
1 Samuel 15:9 (c) This King of Amalek is a type of some wicked habit or evil way which is promoted and cultivated in the life of one who knows better. Haman was a descendant of the Agag family, and caused Israel great trouble in the time of Queen Esther. Saul should have killed Agag. In that he spared his life, he is a picture of the believer who spares things in his life that are hurtful to his own soul. We should never permit any Agag to remain in our lives.
Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature 
(Heb. Agag ’ , אֲגִג , perh. Flame, from an Arab. root, in 1 Samuel always written אֲגָג ; Sept. Ἀγάγ , but Γώγ in Numbers.), the name of two kings of the Amalekites, and probably a common name of all their kings (Hengstenberg, Pentat. 2, 307), like Pharaoh in Egypt, and Achish or Abimelech among the Philistines. (See Agagite).
1. The king apparently of one of the hostile neighboring nations, at the time of the Exode (B.C. 1618), referred to by Balaam ( Numbers 24:7) in a manner implying that the king of the Amalekites was, then at least, a greater monarch, and his people a greater people, than is commonly imagined. (See Amalekite).
2. A king of the Amalekites, who was spared by Saul, contrary to the solemn vow of devotement to destruction, (See Anathema), whereby the nation, as such, had of old precluded itself from giving any quarter to that people ( Exodus 17:14; Numbers 14:45). Hence when Samuel arrived in the camp of Saul he ordered Agag to be brought forth. He came "pleasantly," deeming secure the life which the king had spared. But the prophet ordered him to be cut in pieces; and the expression which he employed — "As thy sword hath made women childless, so shall thy mother be childless among women" — indicates that apart from the obligations of the vow, some such example of retributive justice was intended as had been exercised in the case of Adonibezek; or, in other words, that Agag had made himself infamous by the same treatment of some prisoners of distinction (probably Israelites) as he now received from Samuel (see Diedrichs, Hinrichtung Agag ’ s, Gott. 1776). The unusual mode in which his death was inflicted strongly supports this conclusion ( 1 Samuel 15:8-33). B.C. cir. 1070. (See Samuel).
Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature 
A´gag, the name of two kings of the Amalekites, and perhaps a common name of all their kings, like Pharaoh in Egypt (comp. Numbers 24:7; 1 Samuel 15:8-9; 1 Samuel 15:20; 1 Samuel 15:32). The first of these passages would imply that the king of the Amalekites was, then at least, a greater monarch, and his people a greater people, than is commonly imagined [AMALEKITES]. The latter references are to that king of the Amalekites who was spared by Saul, contrary to that solemn vow of devotement to destruction, whereby the nation, as such, had of old precluded itself from giving any quarter to that people ( Exodus 17:14; Deuteronomy 25:17-19). Hence, when Samuel arrived in the camp of Saul, he ordered Agag to be brought forth. He came 'pleasantly,' deeming secure the life which the king had spared. But the prophet ordered him to be cut in pieces; and the expression which he employed—'As thy sword hath made women childless, so shall thy mother be childless among women'—indicates that, apart from the obligations of the vow, some such example of retributive justice was intended as had been exercised in the case of Adonibezek; or, in other words, that Agag had made himself infamous by the same treatment of some prisoners of distinction (probably Israelites) as he now received from Samuel. The unusual mode in which his death was inflicted strongly supports this conclusion.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 
ā´gag ( אגג , 'ăghāgh , or אגג , 'ăghagh , meaning unknown, possibly "violent," BDB ): A name, or title, applied to the king of the Amalekites, like Abimelech in Philistia and Pharaoh in Egypt. It is used of two of these kings: (1) A king of Amalek, mentioned by Balaam ( Numbers 24:7 ) in his blessing of Israel; (2) A later king, in the days of King Saul (1 Sam 15). Saul was sent with his army to destroy the Amalekites, who had so violently opposed Israel in the Wilderness. He disregarded the Divine command, sparing the best of the spoil, and saving Agag the king alive ( 1 Samuel 15:8 , 1 Samuel 15:9 ). After rebuking Saul, Samuel had Agag put to death for all the atrocities committed by himself and his nation ( 1 Samuel 15:32 , 1 Samuel 15:33 ).
The Nuttall Encyclopedia 
A king of the Amalekites, conquered by Saul, and hewn in pieces by order of Samuel.
- Agag from Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary
- Agag from Smith's Bible Dictionary
- Agag from Fausset's Bible Dictionary
- Agag from Holman Bible Dictionary
- Agag from American Tract Society Bible Dictionary
- Agag from Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible
- Agag from People's Dictionary of the Bible
- Agag from Easton's Bible Dictionary
- Agag from Morrish Bible Dictionary
- Agag from Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types
- Agag from Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature
- Agag from Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature
- Agag from International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
- Agag from The Nuttall Encyclopedia