From BiblePortal Wikipedia
Revision as of 08:37, 15 October 2021 by BiblePortalWiki (talk | contribs)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

People's Dictionary of the Bible [1]

Teraphim ( Tĕr'A-Phĭm ), Givers Of Prosperous Life? Images kept in the houses and honored with a certain kind of reverence. Laban had some of them; and Rachel took these when leaving Padan-aram.  Genesis 31:19;  Genesis 31:30;  Genesis 31:32-35. So we find that they were employed for purposes of divination among the Babylonians.  Ezekiel 21:21. It is possible that Rachel imagined that some augury of the future might be obtained from them; and she must have considered them as having a tutelary power. These images were probably some of the strange gods of which Jacob subsequently cleansed his household.  Genesis 35:2;  Genesis 35:4. Micah had them in his house, and felt sure that Jehovah would bless him when he had a Levite to minister before them.  Judges 17:5;  Judges 17:13. These the Danites eagerly carried off.  Judges 18:14-21. It is still more perplexing to find them in David's house.  1 Samuel 19:13;  1 Samuel 19:16. And it does not seem that they were altogether put away till the thorough reformation of Josiah's days.  2 Kings 23:24. Then, indeed, they were classed with abominable things. The word is used,  1 Samuel 10:23, rendered in our version "idolatry," in expressing' the truth that obstinacy was sinful, "iniquity, and teraphim worship." We find them also censured in  Zechariah 10:2 : and Hosea employed the term to signify the state of Israel with no kind of worship either of the true God or of false deities.  Hosea 3:4. We may gather that they were made of various materials, as of silver,  Judges 17:4, and that they resembled a human figure sometimes of the natural size.  1 Samuel 19:13. Perhaps they were like the Roman Penates or household gods. Small figures of baked clay, some with a human head and a lion's body, and others with a human body and lynx head, have been found under the pavement of the porch of the Khorsabad palace.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [2]

(See Idol .) Sometimes left untranslated; elsewhere "images ... idolatry" ( Genesis 31:19;  Genesis 31:30;  Genesis 31:34;  Genesis 35:2, "strange gods".) Worshipped by Abram's kindred in Mesopotamia ( Joshua 24:14). Images in human form; Maurer thinks busts, cut off at the waist, from Taaraph "to cut off," tutelary household gods; small enough to be hidden beneath the camel's furniture or palanquin on which Rachel sat. Michal put them in David's bed to look like him ( 1 Samuel 19:13;  Judges 17:5;  Judges 18:14;  Judges 18:17-18;  Judges 18:20). Condemned as idolatrous ( 1 Samuel 15:23;  2 Kings 23:24).

Used for divination ( Ezekiel 21:21;  Zechariah 10:2), and to secure good fortune to a house, as the penates. From Arabic Tarafa , "to enjoy the good things of life," according to Gesenius. The Syriac Teraph means "to inquire" of an oracle, Hebrew Toreph "an inquirer" ( Hosea 3:4-5). The Israelites used the teraphim for magic purposes and divination, side by side with the worship of Jehovah. Related perhaps to Seraphim , the recognized symbol attending Jehovah; so perverted into a private idol meant to represent Him, a talisman whereby to obtain responses, instead of by the lawful priesthood through the Urim and Thummim. (See Gate .)

Smith's Bible Dictionary [3]

Teraphim. This word occurs only in the plural, and denotes images connected with magical rites. The derivation of the name is obscure. In one case -  1 Samuel 19:13,  1 Samuel 19:16 - a single statue seems to be intended by the plural. The teraphim, translated, "Images" , in the Authorized Version, carried away from Laban, by Rachel, were regarded by Laban as gods, and it would, therefore, appear that they were used by those who added corrupt practices to the patriarchal religion.

Teraphim again are included among Micah's images.  Judges 17:3-5;  Judges 18:17-18;  Judges 18:20. Teraphim were consulted, for oracular answers, by the Israelites,  Zechariah 10:2, compare  Judges 18:5-6;  1 Samuel 15:22-23;  1 Samuel 19:13;  1 Samuel 19:16, Septuagint (LXX) and  2 Kings 23:24, and by the Babylonians, in the case of Nebuchadnezzar.  Ezekiel 21:19-22.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [4]

This is a Hebrew word in the plural. It refers to domestic idols, as for instance those Rachel stole from her father; there the word, as elsewhere, is translated 'images' with'teraphim' in the margin.  Genesis 31:19,34,35 . Michal the wife of David had one in her house, and laid it in the bed when David escaped.  1 Samuel 19:13,16 . Micah also had them in his house, and regarded them as 'gods.'  Judges 17:5;  Judges 18:14-20 . They were used in some way for divination, and are included among the images and idols which Josiah cleared from the land.  2 Kings 23:24;  Ezekiel 21:21;  Zechariah 10:2 . In  Hosea 3:4 the Jews are described as having neither king, nor prince, nor sacrifice, nor image, nor ephod, nor teraphim — as they are at this day bereft of their sacrifices, and without even the divination and false gods they once had. But the prophecy speaks also of a coming day when they will seek Jehovah their God, and David their king, and enter into blessing.

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [5]

We meet with this word,  Judges 17:5. The translators of the Bible have retained the word as it is in the original, in this place, and also  Hosea 3:4; but the same word,  Genesis 31:19, they have rendered images, though they still have preserved the word Teraphim in the margin at that verse. It is attended with no small difficulty to apprehend what these Teraphim were. It would be easy to suppose, and indeed at once conclude, that they were idols for worship, were it not that the Lord by the prophet Hosea seems to speak in the Scripture referred to, that the children of Israel in their desolations should be without them, which, if idols, would have been their mercy, and not their misery. Nevertheless, as in the case of Rachel there seems a pretty clear testimony that her Teraphim were idols for worship, it is more than probable the whole we meet with in Scripture were to the same purpose. (See  Genesis 35:2-4)

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [6]

It is said,  Genesis 31:19 , that Rachel had stolen the images ( teraphim ) of her father. What then were these teraphim? The Septuagint translate this word by "oracle," and sometimes by "vain figures." Aquila generally translates it by figures." It appears, indeed, from all the passages in which this word is used, that they were idols or superstitious figures. Some Jewish writers tell us the teraphim were human heads placed in niches, and consulted by way of oracles. Others think they were talismans or figures of metal cast and engraven under certain aspects of the planets, to which they ascribed extraordinary effects. All the eastern people are much addicted to this superstition, and the Persians still call them telefin, a name nearly approaching to teraphim. M. Jurieu supposes them to have been a sort of dii penates, or household gods; and this appears to be, perhaps, the most probable opinion.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [7]

Small idols or superstitious figures, from the possession, adoration, and consultation of which extraordinary benefits were expected. See margin  2 Kings 23.24;  Ezekiel 21.21 . The Eastern people are still much addicted to this superstition of talismans. The ancient teraphim appear to have been household gods, and their worship was sometimes blended with that of Jehovah,  Judges 17:1-13 .

They seem in one case to have resembled the human form in shape and size,  1 Samuel 19:13,16 . The images of Rachel,  Genesis 31:19,30 , were teraphim. So  Judges 17:5   18:14,20   Hosea 3:4 .

Holman Bible Dictionary [8]

 Genesis 31:1 1 Samuel 19:13 Genesis 35:2 Judges 17:5 Judges 18:14-20 1 Samuel 15:23 2 Kings 23:24 Hosea 3:4 Ezekiel 21:21 Zechariah 10:2

David M. Fleming

Easton's Bible Dictionary [9]

 1 Samuel 19:13-16 2 Kings 23:24 Hosea 3:4 Judges 8:24-27 Exodus 28:6-14 Judges 17,18 1 Samuel 21:9 23:6,9 30:7,8Thummim

Charles Buck Theological Dictionary [10]

A word in the Hebrew language which has much exercised the ingenuity of the critics. It is commonly interpreted idols. It would be useless here to trouble the reader with the numerous conjectures which have been formed respecting its meaning. Perhaps the best way to determine it would be to examine and compare all the passages in which it occurs, and to consult the ancient translations.

Webster's Dictionary [11]

(n. pl.) Images connected with the magical rites used by those Israelites who added corrupt practices to the patriarchal religion. Teraphim were consulted by the Israelites for oracular answers.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [12]

TERAPHIM . See Images; Israel., p. 412 b; also p. 569 a .

King James Dictionary [13]

TER'APHIM, n. Heb. Household deities or images.

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [14]

Ter´aphim were tutelar household gods, by whom families expected, for worship bestowed, to be rewarded with domestic prosperity, such as plenty of food, health, and various necessaries of domestic life.

We have most remarkable proofs that the worship of teraphim co-existed with the worship of Jehovah even in pious families; and we have more than one instance of the wives of worshippers of Jehovah not finding full contentment and satisfaction in the stern moral truth of spiritual worship, and therefore carrying on some private symbolism by fondling the teraphim.

We find in , that Rachel stole the images (teraphim) belonging to her father without the knowledge of her husband, who, being accused by his father-in-law of having stolen his gods, answered, 'With whomsoever thou findest thy gods, let him not live.' Laban searched, but found not the images (teraphim).

Among the ancient Israelites the worship of Jehovah was frequently blended with that of a graven image or teraphim, but on every revival of the knowledge of the written revelation of God the teraphim were swept away together with the worse forms of idolatry .

The teraphim were consulted by persons on whom true religion had no firm hold, in order to elicit some supernatural omens similar to the auguries of the Romans .

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [15]

Bibliography Information McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Teraphim'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/t/teraphim.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

The Nuttall Encyclopedia [16]

Small images, a sort of household gods among the Hebrews, consulted as oracles, and endowed with some magic virtue.