From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [1]

 Exodus 4:4 (c) Probably this is an emblem of that which becomes useful to GOD when it is in the hand of GOD's servant, although it might have been injurious before being turned over to the Lord. The Lord has a way of turning liabilities into assets.

 Numbers 17:2 (a) This is an emblem of authority from GOD. It was a sign and proof to all Israel that Aaron was his chosen high priest to lead the people in their worship, and was His chosen mediator between Himself and the people of Israel. When it budded in the tabernacle, and the others did not, He was showing Israel that He rejected the claims of Korah, Dothan and Abiram, and all others who assumed the place of leadership. He was also revealing the fact that He could take any old dead "stick," bring it into His presence, and change that person into a beautiful and fruitful Christian.

 Psalm 2:9 (a) This is a type that reveals GOD's resistless power. It is unbending, it is irresistible, and will crush all the enemies of our Lord Christ (See also  Psalm 110:2).

 Psalm 23:4 (b) This is probably a symbol of the powerful punishment which our Lord will exercise against the enemies of His children. The rod was for the wild animals, while the staff was for the sheep.

 Psalm 125:3 (b) This type represents the evil powers of wicked men, and we are assured by the Lord that they shall not be able to conquer nor overcome GOD's people.

 Proverbs 14:3 (a) It seems as though pride acts as an injurious influence both for the owner and for those who are hurt by it. It is not a blessing.

 Jeremiah 1:11 (a) We may understand from this type that it represents a condition that had not yet developed. It refers to GOD's wrath which would come into full force as the slip of the tree would yet bear fruit.

 Jeremiah 10:16 (a) By means of Israel the Lord would get praise, honor and worship through their ministrations and activities. By means of them He would whip many other nations. At times they were quite unfruitful, and not beautiful. Afterward they would be both fruitful and delightful.

 Jeremiah 48:17 (a) At one time Moab was a very strong and vigorous nation. However, they opposed GOD, and GOD's people Israel, so that the prophecy is that they were to be destroyed.

 Lamentations 3:1 (a) Sometimes this is called "a rod iron." Jeremiah had seen GOD punish Israel terribly, and because of his love for Israel he suffered with them.

 Ezekiel 7:10 (a) This probably describes the great wickedness of Israel in their pride and self- sufficiency, thinking they could live without GOD, and could prosper under idolatrous rule. Certain it is that GOD's wrath had been dormant, but is blossoming out against Israel. In verse11, the enemy is no longer dormant. He, too, has become active.

 Ezekiel 19:14 (a) In this lamentation we are told that there is no leader among the people of GOD who is worthy to rule. All the leaders have been defeated and have gone astray, and bring forth no fruit under GOD.

 Ezekiel 20:37 (a) As sheep enter the sheepfold through the gate, and are counted under the rod as they enter, so GOD will look after each one of His people, and none of those who are His own sheep will ever be overlooked.

 Ezekiel 21:10 (c) It may be that the meaning of it is that GOD's wrath will not be hindered by the power of the rulers of Israel. The nation of Israel is called "His son." (See  Isaiah 45:11).

 Micah 6:9 (b) Here we see a type of the whipping, the punishment and the chastisement which may come upon the child of GOD. He should pay attention to it, and learn lessons from it. It is probably another way of expressing the truth in  Hebrews 12:11.

 Micah 7:14 (b) Probably this refers to the power of GOD to bring rich blessings, both material and spiritual, to His people.

 1 Corinthians 4:21 (a) This type is used to express the scolding that Paul could give these sinning saints, and the reproof he could exercise against them. He did not wish to do so.

 Revelation 2:27 (a) We are being told that the conquering CHRIST will rule every enemy with hard and harsh punishment, which is unmingled with mercy. (See also  Revelation 19:15).

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [2]

1. An Instrument of punishment or correction. -The term denotes an instrument of punishment or correction.

(a) In his enumeration of the hardships and sufferings endured by him in the course of his apostolic labours, St. Paul employs the verb ῥαβδίζειν, ‘to beat with rods,’ to describe the punishment to which he was subjected on three occasions by Roman magistrates ( 2 Corinthians 11:25). ‘The rods’ was the customary expression for Roman scourging. In the one instance recorded in the Acts, the scourging was inflicted by the lictors (ῥαβδοῦχοι, translation‘sergeants’ in Authorized Versionand Revised Version, lit.[Note: literally, literature.]“rod-holders’) by order of the duumviri (16:22f., 16:35, 38). It was the duty of the lictors to carry the fasces, consisting of rods bound in the form of a bundle, with an axe in the middle which projected from them. These, usually made of birch, were the instruments with which St. Paul and Silas were cruelly maltreated at Philippi.

(b) The term is used figuratively in  1 Corinthians 4:21 to denote the stern treatment called for in the event of continued recalcitrancy on the part of Church members, chastisement with the rod being a familiar method of enforcing obedience and submission to parental authority (cf.  1 Corinthians 4:11 f.).

2. The symbol of sovereignty. -The ‘rod’ or sceptre is also used as the symbol of sovereignty ( Hebrews 1:8; cf.  Psalms 45:6;  Psalms 110:2). Quotations in the Apocalypse [ Revelation 12:5;  Revelation 19:15] from  Psalms 2:9, which represents the theocratic king as ruling (ποιμανεῖς, Septuagint) the nations with a rod of iron, are applied to the mediatorial reign of Christ, in which His servants also share. The rod of empire, regarded as a shepherd’s staff, is transformed into an instrument of penal authority which subdues or crushes all opposition (cf.  1 Corinthians 15:24 f.).

W. S. Montgomery.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [3]

A — 1: Ῥάβδος (Strong'S #4464 — Noun Feminine — rhabdos — hrab'-dos )

"a staff, rod, scepter," is used (a) of Aaron's "rod,"  Hebrews 9:4; (b) a staff used on a journey,  Matthew 10:10 , RV, "staff" (AV, "staves"); so  Luke 9:3;  Mark 6:8 , "staff;"  Hebrews 11:21 , "staff;" (c) a ruler's staff, a "scepter,"  Hebrews 1:8 (twice); elsewhere a "rod,"   Revelation 2:27;  12:5;  19:15; (d) a "rod" for chastisement (figuratively),  1—Corinthians 4:21; (e) a measuring "rod,"  Revelation 11:1 . See Staff.

B — 1: Ῥαβδίζω (Strong'S #4463 — Verb — rhabdizo — hrab-did'-zo )

"to beat with a rod," is used in  Acts 16:22 , RV, "to beat ... with rods;"  2—Corinthians 11:25 . The "rods" were those of the Roman lictors or "serjeants" (rhabdouchoi, lit., "rod-bearers"); the Roman beating with "rods" is distinct from the Jewish infliction of stripes. In the Sept., Jud., 6:11;  Ruth 2:17 . Cp.  Matthew 26:67 , RV marg.;  John 18:22 (AV marg., and RV marg.); 19:3, RV marg.; see Smite.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [4]

ROD . The rods, sticks, staves, and clubs carried or otherwise used by the Hebrews were probably as varied in size and shape as those in use among the inhabitants of Palestine at the present day, of which a minute description, with illustrations, is given by Baldensperger in PEFSt [Note: Quarterly Statement of the same.] , 1905, 35 ff. No hard-and-fast distinction can be made out between the matteh , the shçbet , and the maqqçl all three rendered in EV [Note: English Version.] by ‘rod’ or ‘staff.’ The context must generally decide which of the two is the better rendering. For example, the twigs which Jacob peeled in the device recorded in   Genesis 30:37 ff. are true rods; but in   Genesis 32:10 the same word ( maqqçl ) is properly rendered ‘ staff .’ On the other hand, Moses’ ‘rod’ (so EV [Note: English Version.] ) is rather his shepherd’s ‘staff’ (  Exodus 4:2 etc.).

For the rod as an instrument of punishment, shçbet is more frequently employed than matteh , as   Proverbs 10:13;   Proverbs 13:24;   Proverbs 26:3 , although both are not seldom employed in parallel lines (  Isaiah 10:24;   Isaiah 30:31 f. etc.). The former also denotes the shepherd’s club (described and figured in Hastings’ DB [Note: Dictionary of the Bible.] iv. 291 a , PEFSt [Note: Quarterly Statement of the same.] , 1905, 36), as in   Psalms 23:4 ,   Leviticus 27:32 etc. (EV [Note: English Version.] ‘rod’). See also Sceptre.

A. R. S. Kennedy.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [5]

This word is used sometimes for the branches of a tree: "And Jacob took him rods of green poplar, and of the hazel and chesnut tree,"

 Genesis 30:37; sometimes for a staff or wand: "And thou shalt take this rod in thine hand, wherewith thou shalt do signs, And Moses took the rod of God in his hand,"  Exodus 4:17;  Exodus 4:20; or for a shepherd's crook: "And concerning the tithe of the herd, or of the flock, even of whatsoever passeth under the rod; the tenth shall be holy unto the Lord,"  Leviticus 27:32; or for a rod, properly so called, which God makes use of to correct men: "If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men,"  2 Samuel 7:14 . "Let him take his rod away from me,"  Job 9:34 . The empire of the Messiah is sometimes represented by a rod of iron, to show its power and its might,  Psalms 2:9;  Revelation 2:27;  Revelation 12:5;  Revelation 19:15 . "Rod is sometimes put to signify a tribe or a people; "Remember thy congregation which thou hast purchased of old, the rod of thine inheritance which thou hast redeemed,"

 Psalms 74:2 . "Israel is the rod of his inheritance,"  Jeremiah 10:16 . The rod of Aaron is the staff commonly used by the high priest. This is the rod that budded and blossomed like an almond tree, Numbers 17. See Aaron .

King James Dictionary [6]

ROD, n. L. radius, ray, radix, root.

1. The shoot or long twig of any woody plant a branch, or the stem of a shrub as a rod of hazle, of birch, of oak or hickory. Hence, 2. An instrument of punishment or correction chastisement.

I will chasten him with the rod of men.  2 Samuel 7 .  Proverbs 10 .

3. Discipline ecclesiastical censures.  1 Corinthians 4 . 4. A king of scepter.

The rod and bird of peace.

5. A pole for angling something long and slender. 6. An instrument for measuring but more generally, a measure of length containing five yards, or sixteen feet and a half a pole a perch. In many parts of the United States, rod is universally used for pole or perch. 7. In Scripture, a staff or wand.  1 Samuel 14 . 8. Support.

Thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me.  Psalms 23 .

9. A shepherd's crook.  Leviticus 27 . 10. An instrument for threshing.  Isaiah 28 . 11. Power authority.  Psalms 125 . 12. A tribe or race.  Psalms 74 .

Rod of iron, the mighty power of Christ.  Revelation 19 .  Psalms 2 .

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [7]

The holy Scriptures have a variety of meanings concerning this word. We perfectly well understand the sense if taken naturally. A rod may be formed from all the various trees of the wood. But when it is used figuratively, the meaning is not so clear. Thus the Lord Jesus himself is called a rod out of the stem of Jesse. ( Isaiah 11:1) And his church is called the rod of his inheritance. ( Psalms 74:2;  Jeremiah 10:16) Sometimes the expression is made use of to denote the exercise of the Lord's power. Thus speaking of his enemies he saith, "Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron." ( Psalms 2:9) And by the exercise of it for his people, he shall make them willing in the day of his power. ( Psalms 110:3) And the Psalmist comforts himself in the Lord's exercise of it over him when he saith "thy rod and thy staff they comfort me." ( Psalms 23:4) I refer to the Scripture for the general account of the rod "of Moses and Aaron's rod that budded," and the like. ( Exodus 3:1-22 etc.  Numbers 17:8)

Webster's Dictionary [8]

(1): ( n.) An instrument of punishment or correction; figuratively, chastisement.

(2): ( n.) A member used in tension, as for sustaining a suspended weight, or in tension and compression, as for transmitting reciprocating motion, etc.; a connecting bar.

(3): ( n.) A straight and slender stick; a wand; hence, any slender bar, as of wood or metal (applied to various purposes).

(4): ( n.) An instrument for measuring.

(5): ( n.) A support for a fishing line; a fish pole.

(6): ( n.) A kind of sceptor, or badge of office; hence, figuratively, power; authority; tyranny; oppression.

(7): ( n.) A measure of length containing sixteen and a half feet; - called also perch, and pole.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [9]

An offshoot from the trunk of a tree,  Genesis 30:37   Isaiah 11:1   Ezekiel 37:15-22 . It also denotes a staff, used by one walking,  Isaiah 3:1   Ezekiel 29:6; by a diviner,  Hosea 4:12; by a surveyor,  Psalm 74:2; by a shepherd,  Leviticus 27:32   Zechariah 11:10-14; as an instrument of correction,  Proverbs 23:13   29:15; as a sceptre,  Esther 8:4   Isaiah 14:5; and as a symbol of power,  Psalm 2:9 , support and direction,  Psalm 23:4 .

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [10]

Emblem of authority.  Exodus 4:2, etc., Moses'; Numbers 17, Aaron's;  Psalms 2:9, Christ's. He will either rule with the pastoral rod, or break with the rod (Scepter) of iron ( Revelation 2:27;  Revelation 19:15;  Micah 6:9;  Micah 7:14;  Psalms 110:2;  Isaiah 9:4;  Isaiah 11:4).

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [11]

stands in the A.V. as the representative of several different Hebrew words, and consequently has various significations in the Scriptures ( חֹטֶר , Choter, a Shoot,  Proverbs 14:3;  Isaiah 11:1; מִקֵּל , Makkel, a Twig,  Genesis 30:37-39;  Genesis 30:41;  Genesis 32:10;  Exodus 12:11;  Numbers 22:27;  1 Samuel 17:40;  1 Samuel 17:43;  Jeremiah 1:11;  Jeremiah 48:17;  Ezekiel 39:9;  Hosea 4:12;  Zechariah 11:7;  Zechariah 11:10;  Zechariah 11:14; elsewhere מִטֶּה , Matteh, a Stick, especially for walking or smiting, or שֶׁבֶט , Shebet, the Baton of office; Ῥαβδός ) . It signifies a wand or walking staff: as Moses' rod ( Exodus 4:2;  Exodus 4:4), Aaron's rod (7:9), Jonathan's rod ( 1 Samuel 14:27). The rods of Moses and Aaron were the visible means chosen by the Almighty for the instrument of his wonders in Egypt, at the Red Sea, and in the wilderness. The rod of Moses is sometimes called "the rod of God" ( Exodus 4:20;  Exodus 7:9;  Exodus 7:12;  Exodus 7:19-20;  Exodus 8:5;  Exodus 8:17;  Exodus 9:23;  Exodus 10:13). Aaron's rods, which miraculously blossomed and brought forth almonds, was laid up as a memorial in the holy place ( Numbers 17:8;  Numbers 17:10;  Hebrews 9:4). As the wonders wrought by the instrumentality of Moses' and Aaron's rods attracted the attention of neighboring nations, it is not extraordinary if, in course of time, these personages were interwoven with mythology (see Willemer, De Baculo Mosis [Viteb. 1680]). It has been plausibly conjectured that Aaron's rod, which in its serpent state devoured the serpent rods of the Egyptian magicians, was the prototype of the caduceus, or wonder working rod of Mercury, which was figured as entwined with two serpents. Aaron's rod was caused to blossom miraculously and bring forth almonds ( Numbers 17:8) to show God's election for the priesthood. Parkhurst thinks that the rods of the chiefs among the Israelites were of the almond tree, to denote vigilance, that being an early tree, flowering before all others. The shepherd's staff is called "a rod;" and the tithe of the herd, or of the flock, was to be taken from "whatsoever passed under the rod," i.e. from whatsoever required the shepherd's care (27:32;  Jeremiah 33:13;  Ezekiel 20:37;  Micah 7:14). The term "rod" also means a shoot or branch of a tree, and in this sense is applied figuratively to Christ as a descendant of Jesse ( Isaiah 11:1). "Rod" is used to designate the tribes of Israel as springing from one root ( Psalms 74:2;  Jeremiah 10:16). It is used as the symbol of power and authority ( Psalms 2:9;  Psalms 120:2;  Psalms 125:3;  Jeremiah 48:17;  Ezekiel 19:11;  Revelation 2:27); of that which supports and strengthens, a stay or staff ( Psalms 23:4;  Isaiah 3:1;  Ezekiel 29:6); and of the afflictions with which God disciplines his people ( Job 9:34;  Hebrews 12:6-7). (See Cooper, Hist. Of The Rod In All Countries And Ages [2d ed. Lond. 1877].) (See Sceptre); (See Staff).

A peculiar use of rods is afforded in the instance of those of poplar and hazel (more properly the wild almond) which Jacob partially peeled, and set in the water where Laban's cattle drank, and by looking at which they brought forth speckled and ring-streaked young. Commentators are not agreed as to the effect thus produced: whether it was natural or miraculous; whether the sight of the rods had naturally such an effect on the animals' perceptions as to influence the markings of their offspring, in the manner that children often receive marks before birth, from some object that has impressed itself on the mother's mind, or whether it was a special operation of God in Jacob's favor, which, in fact, seems clearly intimated in  Genesis 31:10;  Genesis 31:12. where Jacob declares himself to have been guided on this subject by God in a dream. The Latin fathers considered the case as natural, the Greek as miraculous, which is also the prevailing opinion of modern commentators, who consider it very doubtful whether the same cause (the use of variegated rods) would now certainly produce the same effects. (See Poplar).

Rhabdomancy, or divining by rods, became a common superstition or idolatrous custom among the Jews, arising, doubtlessly, from the ideas of supernatural agency attached to the rods of Moses and Aaron. It is alluded to in  Hosea 4:12 "My people ask counsel at their stocks, and their staff declareth unto them." It was performed, first, by inscribing certain characters on small rods, and then drawing them, like lots, out of a vessel; secondly, by measuring the rod in spans, and saying, alternately, words expressing a negative and an affirmative, and then determining, according to the last span, whether negative or affirmative, to do the intended action or not; thirdly, by erecting two sticks, repeating a charm, and then determining by certain rules, according as the sticks fell backward or forward, to the right or to the left. (See Divination).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [12]

( מקּל , maḳḳēl , מטּה , maṭṭeh , שׁבט , shēbheṭ  ; ῥάβδος , rhábdos ): Little distinction can be drawn between the Hebrew words used for "rod" and "staff." Maḳḳēl is the word used in   Genesis 30:37 ff for the twigs of poplar put by Jacob before his sheep, and in   Jeremiah 1:11 of the "rod of an almond-tree." Maṭṭēh is used of a rod in the hand, as the "rods" of Moses and of Aaron ( Exodus 4:2 ff;   Exodus 7:9 ff, etc.). Shēbheṭ is used, but sometimes also maṭṭeh , of the rod used for correction ( Exodus 21:20;  2 Samuel 7:14;  Proverbs 10:13;  Proverbs 13:24;  Isaiah 10:5 , etc.). In  Psalm 23:4 ("Thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me"), however, shēbheṭ is the shepherd's rod, figurative of divine guidance and care. In   Ezekiel 21:10 ,  Ezekiel 21:13 , the word stands for the royal scepter. In the New Testament "rod" is used of a rod of correction ( 1 Corinthians 4:21 ), Aaron's rod ( Hebrews 9:4 ), a ruler's rod "of iron" (severity, as in  Revelation 2:27;  Revelation 12:5;  Revelation 19:15 ), a measuring rod ( Revelation 11:1 ). See also Armor; Arms .