From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [1]

NO or No Amon (margin,  Nahum 3:8), rather than "populous No." So  Jeremiah 46:25, "the multitude," rather "Amon of No." So  Ezekiel 30:14-16. Named from Amen, Thebes' chief god (from whence the Greeks call it "the city of Zeus" or "Diospolis".) Appearing in many kings' names, as Amenophis. Connected by some with Ham, Noah's son, or Aman "the nourisher," or Hamon "the sun god," or Amon "the artificer." Septuagint translated "the portion of Amon." Inscriptions call him Amon-re, "Amon the sun." A human figure with ram's head, seated on a chair (See Amen .) Nahum describes Thebes as "situate among the rivers" (Including The Canals Watering The City) on both sides of the Nile, which no other town of ancient Egypt is. Ezekiel's prophecy that it should be "rent asunder" is fulfilled to the letter, Amen's vast temple lying shattered as if by an earthquake ( Ezekiel 30:16).

Famed in Homer's Iliad (ix. 381) for its "hundred gates," but as no wall appears traceable either the reference is to the propylaea or portals of its numerous temples (Diod. Sicul., But Warriors Would Not March Through Them) , or else the surrounding mountains (100 Of Them Pierced With Catacombs And Therefore Called Beeban El Meluke, "The Gates Of The Kings") which being mutually detached form so many avenues between them into the city. But the general usage of walling towns favors the view that the walls have disappeared. Her "rampart was the sea, and her wall from (Or, As Maurer, Consisted Of) the sea," namely, the Nile ( Isaiah 19:5). Homer says it possessed 20,000 war chariots, which Diodorus Siculus confirms by saying there were 100 stables along the river capable of accommodating 200 horses each. Sargon after destroying Samaria attacked Hoshea's ally, So or Sabacho II, and destroyed in part No-Amon or Thebes (Isaiah 20).

"The monuments represent Sargon warring with Egypt and imposing tribute on the Pharaoh of the time, also Egypt as in that close connection with Ethiopia which Isaiah and Nahum imply" (G. Rawlinson). No is written Ni'a in the Assyrian inscriptions. Asshur-bani-pal twice took Thebes. "No," if Semitic, is related to Naah , "abode," "pasture," answering to Thebes' low situation on a plain. The sacred name was Ηa-Αmen , "the abode of Amen"; the common name was Ap or Ape, "capital." The feminine article prefixed made it Tape, Thape, Coptic Thabu, Greek Thebes. No hieroglyphics are found in it earlier than the sixth dynasty, three centuries later than Menes, a native of This in the Thebaid, the founder of Memphis. Diodorus states the circuit was 140 furlongs. Strabo (xvii. 47) describes the two colossal figures, "each a single stone, the one entire, the upper part of the other from the chair fallen, the result of an earthquake ( Ezekiel 30:16). Once a day a noise as of a slight blow issues from that part of the statue which remains still in the seat and on its base": the vocal Memnon.

The Nile's deposit has accumulated to the depth of seven feet around them. It is two miles broad, four long; the four landmarks being Karnak and Luxor on the right bank, Quurnah and Medinet Haboo on the left. Temples and palaces extended along the left bank for two miles. First the Maneptheion palace or temple of Seti Oimenepthah of the 19th dynasty, a mile from the river. A mile S. is the so named Memnonium of Amenophis III, called Miamun or "Memnon," really the Ramesseium of Rameses the Great, with his statue of a single block of syenite marble, 75 ft. high, 887 tons weight, the king seated on his throne. The vocal Memnon and its fellow are a quarter of a mile further S. Somewhat S. of this is the S. Ramesseium, the magnificent palace temple of Rameses III, one of the ruins of Medinet Haboo. The columns are seven feet diameter at the base and 23 ft. round. Within the second and grand court stood a Christian church afterward. The right bank has the facade of Luxor facing the river.

The chief entrance looks N. toward Karnak, with which once it was joined by an avenue more than a mile long, of sphinxes with rams' heads and lions' bodies (One Is In The British Museum) . Colossal statues of Rameses the Great are one on each side of the gateway. In front stood a pair of red granite obelisks, one of which now adorns the Place de la Concorde, Paris. The courts of the Karnak temple occupy 1,800 square feet, and its buildings represent every dynasty from Ptolemy Physcon, 117 B.C., 2000 years backward. It is two miles in circumference. The grand hall has twelve central pillars, 66 ft. high, 12 ft. diameter. On either side are seven rows, each column 42 ft. high, nine feet diameter. There are in all 134 pillars in an area 170 ft. by 329. The outer wall is 40 ft. thick at the base and 100 high. On it is represented Shishak's expedition against Jerusalem and "the land of the king of Judah "under Rehoboam ( 1 Kings 14:25;  2 Chronicles 12:2-9). It records also Tirhakah the Ethiopian's exploits. In the 12th and 13th dynasties of Manetho, first, Theban kings appear.

When the nomads from the N.E., the Hyksos or shepherd kings, invaded Egypt and fixed their capital at Memphis, a native dynasty was maintained in Thebes. Ultimately, the Hyksos were expelled and Thebes became the capital of all Egypt under the 18th dynasty, the city's golden era. Thebes then swayed Libya and Ethiopia, and carried its victorious arms into Syria, Media, and Persia. It retained its supremacy for 500 years, to the close of the 19th dynasty, then under the 20th dynasty it began to decline. Sargon's blow upon Thebes was inflicted early in Hezekiah's reign. Nahum ( Nahum 3:8;  Nahum 3:10) in the latter part of that reign speaks of her being already "carried away into captivity, her young children dashed in pieces at the top of all the streets, lots cast for her honourable men, and all her great men bound in chains," notwithstanding her having Ethiopia, Egypt, Put, and Lubim as "her strength and it was infinite," and makes her a warning to Nineveh.

A still heavier blow was dealt by Nebuchadnezzar, as Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 46:25-26) foretells: "Behold I will punish Anjou No and Pharaoh and Egypt, with their gods and their kings. Afterward it shall be inhabited." This last prophecy was fulfilled 40 years after Nebuchadnezzar's conquest of Egypt, when under Cyrus it threw off the Babylonian yoke. So  Ezekiel 29:10-15, "I will make ... Egypt ... waste ... from the tower of Syene (N.) even unto Ethiopia (the extreme S.) ... Yet at the end of 40 (The Number Expressing Affliction And Judgment, So The 40 Days Of The Flood Rains) years will I ... bring again the captivity of Egypt." The Persian Cambyses gave the finishing blow to No-Amon's greatness, leveling Rameses' statue and setting fire to the temples and palaces. In vain the Ptolemies tried subsequently to restore its greatness. It now consists of Arab huts amidst stately ruins and drifting sands.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [2]

NO.   Jeremiah 46:25 ,   Ezekiel 30:14-16 , the name of Thebes (Diospolis Magna), Egyp. Nç  : also No-amon ,   Nahum 3:8 , Amon (Ammon) being the god of the city. Nahum seems to imagine Thebes as resembling the cities of the less remote Delta surrounded by canals, which were their chief protection; in reality it lay on both banks of the Nile, with desert bounding it on either side, and water probably played little part in its defence. Thebes was of no importance until the Middle Kingdom (Dyns. 11, 12), during which the royal families were much connected with it. It was the capital of the local 17th Dyn., struggling against the Hyksos in the name of its god Ammon; and the great warriors of the succeeding 18th Dyn. enriched Thebes with the spoils of conquest, built temples there that surpassed all others in size and magnificence, and made it the greatest city of the Empire. Under the 19th and 20th Dynasties, Ammon was still the national god, and Thebes the capital of Egypt. Later, Memphis again took the first place, but Thebes was at least the religious centre of the wide-spread Ammon worship, and the temples retained much of their wealth until the sack of the city by king Ashurbanipal (about b.c. 666), referred to in Nahum. The temples of Thebes continued to be added to until insurrections under the Ptolemys led to its destruction and final abandonment as a city. In   Jeremiah 46:25 (RV [Note: Revised Version.] ) ‘I will punish Amon of No and Pharaoh and Egypt with her gods and their kings,’ Amon is probably not taken as the representative god of Egypt, a position which he no longer held in the 6th cent. b.c.: the passage rather indicates the completeness of Egypt’s fall by the punishment of the remote Thebes, which could not be accomplished till Lower Egypt was prostrate. The Theban Ammon was often entitled ‘Amen-Rç, king of the gods,’ being identified with the sun-god Rç. His figure is that of a man, generally coloured green. The ram was his sacred animal. In Ethiopia he was adopted as the national god, and his worship was established in the Oases, especially in the Oasis of Ammon (Siwa), where his oracle was visited by Alexander.

F. Ll. Griffith.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [3]

'Ayin ( אַיִן , Strong'S #369), “no; not; nothing; or else, nor.” Cognates of this word appear in Akkadian, Ugaritic, and Phoenician (Punic). The word appears 789 times in biblical Hebrew and in all periods.

'Ayin may be used absolutely, with no suffixes and not in a construct chain. When so used the word signifies nonexistence. This is its use and significance in Gen. 2:5 (the first occurrence): “… And there was not a man to till the ground.” Preceded by the particle ‘im , the word may mean “not”: “Is the Lord among us, or not?” (Exod. 17:7). In Gen. 30:1 this construction means “or else.” In other contexts the word means “nothing”: “… Mine age is as nothing before thee …” (Ps. 39:5).

In the construct state 'ayin has the same basic meaning. In one special nuance the word is virtually a predicate meaning “there is not” or “we do not have” (Num. 14:42; cf. Gen. 31:50). In several contexts the word might be translated “without”: “Without counsel purposes are disappointed …” (Prov. 15:22). Preceded by the preposition min, ‘ayin —can mean “because” (Jer. 7:32). Elsewhere the word expresses simple negation: “They have ears, but they hear not; neither is there any breath in their mouths” (Ps. 135:17).

With a suffixed pronoun 'ayin negates the existence of the one or thing so represented; with the suffixed pronoun “he,” the word means “he was no longer”: “And Enoch walked with God: and he was [no longer]; for God took him” (Gen. 5:24).

This word should be distinguished from another 'ayin meaning “whence,” or “from where.”

Easton's Bible Dictionary [4]

 Jeremiah 46:25 Ezekiel 30:14,16 Nahum 3:8

It was the Diospolis or Thebes of the Greeks, celebrated for its hundred gates and its vast population. It stood on both sides of the Nile, and is by some supposed to have included Karnak and Luxor. In grandeur and extent it can only be compared to Nineveh. It is mentioned only in the prophecies referred to, which point to its total destruction. It was first taken by the Assyrians in the time of Sargon (  Isaiah 20 ). It was afterwards "delivered into the hand" of Nebuchadnezzar and Assurbani-pal ( Jeremiah 46:25,26 ). Cambyses, king of the Persians (B.C. 525), further laid it waste by fire. Its ruin was completed (B.C. 81) by Ptolemy Lathyrus. The ruins of this city are still among the most notable in the valley of the Nile. They have formed a great storehouse of interesting historic remains for more than two thousand years. "As I wandered day after day with ever-growing amazement amongst these relics of ancient magnificence, I felt that if all the ruins in Europe, classical, Celtic, and medieval, were brought together into one centre, they would fall far short both in extent and grandeur of those of this single Egyptian city." Manning, The Land of the Pharaohs.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [5]

This is the scripture name of THEBES,a noted city in Egypt, built on both sides of the river Nile, having a hundred gates, situate about 25 46' N. Its position is alluded to in  Nahum 3:8-10 , where the Nile is called 'the sea,' and 'the rivers' refer to the canals. Instead of 'populous No,' 'No of Amon' should be read, referring to the Egyptian god Amon; and in  Jeremiah 46:25 for 'the multitude of No,' 'Amon of No' should be read.

The passage in Nahum refers to some past desolation. Assyria had been able to distress Egypt before this prophecy, and the reference there is probably to an attack on Egypt by Sargon (B.C. 722-705): cf.  Isaiah 20:1-5 . The account in  Jeremiah 46 speaks of the city being delivered into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar, though afterwards it should be inhabited as in days of old. God's judgements on the city are also foretold in   Ezekiel 30:14-16 . Nebuchadnezzar overran Egypt in B.C. 581, and in 526 Cambyses conquered it.

The perishable nature of human greatness is evidenced in a striking manner in Egypt by miserable huts being in close proximity to ruins of colossal buildings which could have been reared only at the cost of immense labour and the exercise of much skill.

Webster's Dictionary [6]

(1): ( n.) A negative vote; one who votes in the negative; as, to call for the ayes and noes; the noes have it.

(2): ( n.) A refusal by use of the wordd no; a denial.

(3): ( adv.) Nay; not; not at all; not in any respect or degree; - a word expressing negation, denial, or refusal. Before or after another negative, no is emphatic.

(4): ( a.) Not any; not one; none.

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [7]

We read in the prophet Nahum of populous No. ( Nahum 3:8) And Jeremiah and Ezekiel both speak of this city. ( Jeremiah 46:25;  Ezekiel 30:14, etc.) But we know very little about it.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [8]

No. See No-Amon .

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [9]

or NO-AMMON, a city of Egypt, supposed to be Thebes.

King James Dictionary [10]

NO. an abbreviation of number.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [11]

(Heb. id. נא , doubtless an Egyptian word, and signifying [according to Jablonski, Opusc. 1:163] Portion or Possession ) , a city of Egypt (called by the natives Toph, according to Champollion, Grammn. Egypt. p. 136, 153), mentioned by this name alone twice by the prophets ( Ezekiel 30:14 sq.;  Jeremiah 46:25), and generally supposed to be the same elsewhere ( Nahum 3:8), called more fully NO-AMON (See No-Amon) (q.v.) (see Gesen. Thes. p. 834 sq.; Young, Rudiments Of An Egyptian Dictionary, p. 80 sq.), a famous city of Egypt, thickly peopled, and strongly situated, which at the time of Nahum (B.C. cir. 720) had recently been taken by a mighty conqueror ( Nahum 3:8 sq.). The Sept. translate the name by Diospolis. which was the name of two cities in Egypt; the one in Upper Egypt, better known as Thebes, famous in Homer's time (II. 9:383), and often mentioned by Strabo (1:9, 35; 17:805, 815) and Pliny (v. 11; 36:12; 37:54), and for which a separate nome or district was named (Ptol. 4:5, 73); the other in Lower Egypt, in the district of Mendes, mentioned by Strabo (17:802) as being surrounded by lakes. Some refer the words of Nahum (1. c.) to the latter, Diospolis the lesser' (so Kreenen, NaAumi VVatic. philol. et critic. expos. [Harder. 1808]; Champollion, l'Egypte, 2:131); but most interpreters, following the Egyptian signification of the name No, as given above, understand the prophet to mean Thebes. The latter opinion, supported by the seventy Alexandrian translators, seems to be certainly correct, as the prophet could not speak of anv city less than Thebes as equal to Nineveh. The "waters round about her" ( Nahum 3:8) refer doubtless to the canals, with which Thebes, like so many other cities on the Nile, was surrounded for protection (comp. Zorn, Hist. et. Antiqu. Urbis Thebar. [Sedin. 1727]; Opuscula, 2:322 sq.; also in Ugolini, Thes. vii; Rosenmuller, Schol. vii, 3:299 sq.). This city was one of the oldest, probibly the oldest in all Egypt (Diod. Sic. 1:50; comp. 14:45), and in very early times was the residence of the kings of Upper Egypt during several dynasties. In the days of its grandeur it lay on both banks of the Nile (Strabo, 17:816), in a valley about ten geographical miles in width, and contained within its vast circuit houses from four to six stories high, with many splendid and wealthy temples, the chief being that of Jupiter Ammon (Herod. 1:182; 2:42), whose numerous priests were famous for their astronomical knowledge (Strabo, 17:816).

The colossal statue of Memnon .stood in the western part of the city (Strabo, 1. c.; Pliny, 36:11; Pausan. 1:42, 2). The splendid tombs of the kings also increased its splendor (Diod. Sic. 1:46). But when Memphis became the residence of the Egyptian kings Thebes began to decline, and later, by the invasion of Cambyses, lost forever its old magnificence. In Strabo's time the city was already in decay; but its remains were still eighty stadia, or nearly ten miles, in circuit, and the inhabited parts formed several considerable villages. Indeed, its ruins are still extensive and splendid (Joilois, Devilliers, and Jomard, Dlescript. de l'Egypt, with many plates, vols. ii, iii; F. Cailland, Voyage a l'oasis de Thebes (Paris, 1821); G. Belzoni, Reis. u. d. Schriffenverz.; Heeren, Ideen, 2:11, 216 sq.; Mannert, 10:1, 334 sq.; Ukert, Africa, 1:226 sq.; Ritter, Erdkunde, 1:1, 731 sq. [2d ed.]; Wilkinson's View of An. Egypt, and Topography of Thebes [Lond. 1835]; Prokesch, Erinner. 1:279 sq.; Robinson, Researches, 1:2934). It is difficult to determine which overthrow of Thebes is referred to by Nahum (3:8). however nothing is known but that he made an incursion into the interior of Egypt (comp. Ditmar, Beschr. v. Ae.p. p. 121 sq.). Rosenm Ü ller (in loc.) explains the passage as referring to Tartan, general under king Sargon, and the facts stated in Isaiah vi agree well with this view (comp. Siskind in Stud. und Krit. 1835, p. 151 sq.; Gesen. Thes. 2:835). But Gesenius (Hall. Lit.Zeit. 1841, No. 1) remarks that an overthrow of Thebes by the Assyrians does not accord well with the context in Nahum, for, had the conqueror been al Assyrian, the prophet could hardly have predicted the destruction of the Assyrian capital without making prominent the contrast between her situation as destroyer and as destroyed. He accordingly refers this passage to an invasion of the Scythians in the beginning of the 7th century before Christ. Ewald believes this destruction of Thebes to have been occasioned by the great internal commotions of Egypt in the early art of the 7th century before Christ. (See Thebes).

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [12]


No or No-Ammon [THEBES]