From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Holman Bible Dictionary [1]

 1 Kings 9:26-28 1 Kings 10:22 Leviticus 25:37 Deuteronomy 14:21 Proverbs 31:24 2 Kings 4:7 Proverbs 11:26 Amos 8:5 Nehemiah 5:1-8 Nehemiah 13:15-21 Nehemiah 3:32

The majority of Old Testament references to merchants concern nations other than Israel. The term translated as merchant or trader at  Proverbs 31:24 and   Hosea 12:7 is, in fact, the word for Canaanite. Men of Tyre sold fish and all kinds of merchandise in postexilic Jerusalem (  Nehemiah 13:16 ).  Ezekiel 27:12-25 recounts the activities of the merchants of Tyre in full. They traded in common and precious metals, slaves, livestock, precious stones, ivory, wool, cloth, clothing, agricultural produce, wine, spices, and carpets. (Compare   Revelation 18:11-13 .) Tyre's trading partners included twenty-two nations or peoples encompassing Asia Minor, Palestine, Syria, Arabia, and Mesopotamia. Merchants generated great wealth. The prophets railed against the pride which accompanied merchants' material successes ( Isaiah 23:1;  Ezekiel 27:1 ).

In the New Testament, Jesus used a merchant to illustrate the need to risk all to gain the kingdom of heaven ( Matthew 13:45-46 ). Other references continue the prophetic attack on arrogant merchants.  James 4:13 warns big businessmen who engaged in long-term foreign ventures not to dismiss God when making plans. Revelation condemns Roman merchants who grew rich on the sins of Rome (  Revelation 18:3 ). See Economic Life; Commerce .

Chris Church

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [2]

 Genesis 23:16 . The commodities of different countries were usually exchanged by traders of various kinds, in caravans or "traveling companies,"  Isaiah 21:13 , which had their regular season and routes for passing from one great mart to another,  Genesis 37:25,28 . These merchants prospered by wandering, as ours do by remaining stationary.

The apostle James reminds them to lay their plans in view of the uncertainty of life, and their need of divine guidance,  James 4:13 . Some of the maritime nations, as Egypt, and still more the Phoenicians, carried on a large traffic by sea,  Isaiah 23:2   Ezekiel 27:28 .

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [3]

1: Ἔμπορος (Strong'S #1713 — Noun Masculine — emporos — em'-por-os )

denotes "a person on a journey" (poros, "a journey"), "a passenger on shipboard;" then, "a merchant,"  Matthew 13:45;  Revelation 18:3,11,15,23 .

Webster's Dictionary [4]

(1): ( n.) One who traffics on a large scale, especially with foreign countries; a trafficker; a trader.

(2): ( n.) A trading vessel; a merchantman.

(3): ( n.) One who keeps a store or shop for the sale of goods; a shopkeeper.

(4): ( a.) Of, pertaining to, or employed in, trade or merchandise; as, the merchant service.

(5): ( v. i.) To be a merchant; to trade.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [5]

 Genesis 37:25 Job 6:18 Genesis 37:28 39:1 Deuteronomy 33:18 Judges 5:17 1 Kings 9:26 10:11,26,28 22:48 2 Chronicles 1:16 9:10,21

King James Dictionary [6]

MER'CHANT, n. L.mercor,to buy.

1. A man who trafficks or carries on trade with foreign countries,or who exports and imports goods and sells them by wholesale. 2. In popular usage, any trader, or one who deals in the purchase and sale of goods. 3. A ship in trade. Not used.

MER'CHANT, To trade. Not in use.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [7]

Merchant —See Trade and Commerce.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [8]

Bibliography Information McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Merchant'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.