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Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [1]

I should not have paused over this word, had I not recollected in the moment of reading it, that the Holy Ghost is graciously pleased to make use of it as a figure to represent the Lord Jesus by, in several parts of the divine word; and also the church is spoken of, from her union with her Lord, by the same similitude. "His head (said the church, when commending the beauties of her Lord,) is as the most fine gold." ( Song of Song of Solomon 5:11) "His hands are as gold rings set with the beryl." ( Song of Song of Solomon 5:14) And the Lord Jesus, speaking of his church, made comely in his comeliness, saith, "Thy cheeks are comely with rows of jewels; thy neck with Chains of gold. We will make thee borders of gold, with studs of silver." ( Song of Song of Solomon 1:10-11) As gold is the richest and most valued of all metals, so by this figure is meant to say, that the Headship of Christ is every thing that is rich, valuable and glorious to his body the church. Yea, as the Scripture saith, when referring to the Lord Jesus as God-man Mediator, "the head of Christ is God." ( 1 Corinthians 11:3) It is probable, that an eye to God the Father, under this similitude, might also be meant. For though in respect to the divine nature, Christ is "one with the Father, over all, God blessed for ever." ( Romans 9:5) Yet in respect to his human nature, the Father may truly be said to be the head of Christ; for he saith himself, "A body hast thou given me, or prepared me." ( Psalms 40:6 with  Hebrews 10:5)

But it is very blessed to eye the Lord Jesus under this figure. As the Head of his body the well be compared to the most fine gold; for the Psalmist saith, in allusion to his royal dignity and power, Jehovah put "a crown of pure gold upon his head, When he made him most blessed for ever." ( Psalms 21:1-7) And as all this, and infinitely more to the same effect, is spoken of Christ in allusion to his mediatorial character, the Head of his church and people, so this endears Jesus the more, inasmuch as all his people are so highly interested in all that belongs to him. Gold is a proper figure to represent the glories of his person, the excellency of his kingdom, the purity and spiritual nature of it, the durableness of it and the splendour and everlasting glory of it; for all his people are made kings and priests, by virtue of his riches and glory to God and the Father. ( Revelation 1:6) And as Christ's head is compared on all these, and the like accounts to gold: so his hands to rings of gold set with beryl, from the liberal manner in which he bestows gifts and graces to his redeemed. "In his right hand, saith Solomon, is length of days, and in his left hand riches and honour." ( Proverbs 3:16) The beryl was one of the precious stones in the breastplate of the High Priest. ( Exodus 28:20) And John tells the church, that the beryl was among the foundation-stones of the new Jerusalem. ( Revelation 21:20) What those precious stones implied cannot need inquiry, since elsewhere we are told, that Christ is the foundation-stone JEHOVAH hath laid in Zion; and the church, both in heaven and earth, rests wholly upon him, the chief corner stone, "in whom all the building fitly framed together, groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord." ( Ephesians 2:20-21)

It is blessed to behold also the church spoken of under the same similitude, from her union and oneness with her Lord. The neck and cheeks of the church, the parts connected with the head, made comely with jewels and chains of gold, may be supposed to mean those graces, with which her Lord hath adorned her, "more to be desired than gold, yea, than much fine gold." And when a soul is blessed in the everlasting covenant with all spiritual blessings in Christ Jesus, there is a loveliness indeed, which is as an "ornament of grace unto the head, and as chains about the neck." ( Proverbs 1:9) And what tends to endear the whole is, that all the persons of the Godhead concur in this vast work of adorning the church with blessings, more valuable than the "golden wedge of Ophir." It is said, "We will make thee borders of gold, with studs of silver;" meaning, surely, the joint work and grace of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in whose joint names all true believers in Christ are baptized, and blessed upon earth, and everlastingly made happy and glorious in heaven. ( Matthew 28:19;  2 Corinthians 13:14;  Revelation 7:9-12)

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [2]


1. Value .—The Bible references to gold are in terms of use and abuse, in accordance with the great fundamental truth, ‘The gold is mine, saith the Lord of hosts’ ( Haggai 2:8). Being the most precious of metals, it represents the possession and influence of wealth. It has a central place in the trilogy of life—length of days, riches, and honour ( 1 Chronicles 29:28). It seems to have a purchasing power over the other two—on the one hand in securing the conditions that tend to prolong life ( Psalms 17:14;  Psalms 73:7;  Psalms 73:12), and on the other by influencing opinion in favour of its possessors ( Matthew 19:25,  James 2:2). As the highest quotation of earthly values, it supplies a standard for estimating what surpasses it ( Job 28:17,  Psalms 119:72;  Psalms 119:127,  Proverbs 3:14;  Proverbs 8:10;  Proverbs 16:16;  1 Peter 1:7; 1Pe_1:18). It is only when, as the most beautiful and precious material available, it is used to give visible form to the Divine glory that gold becomes a thing of worthlessness ( Psalms 115:4,  Isaiah 31:7;  Isaiah 46:6). The blindness that led to such idolatrous perversion among the Gentiles ( Acts 17:29) is also found among the Jews ( Matthew 23:16-17).

2. Associated evil .—As the emblem of wealth, gold is closely connected with that covetousness in the will and heart of man which is described as the motive and meeting-place of all idolatries ( Colossians 3:5). Job can plead that he has not made gold his hope ( Job 31:24). Solomon is commended because he did not make request for riches ( 1 Kings 3:11). The deceitfulness of riches is given as one of the explanations of the unfruitful life ( Matthew 13:22). The self-centred ambitions and gratifications of wealth are all against the perception and service of a Kingdom in which even the poor seek the enrichment of other lives ( Mark 10:24,  2 Corinthians 6:10). The order given to the disciples forbidding them to take gold or silver with them on their journey of proclamation ( Matthew 10:9), was not meant as a commendation of poverty for its own sake. Indeed, it was just because money, clothing, and the wayfarer’s staff were the often-proved necessaries of ordinary travel, that the omission of them in their case would impart to their message about the Kingdom a meaning of instantaneousness and urgency. The guest-law of the land would provide food and shelter for the passing stranger; and where they were asked to prolong their stay, those who were thus interested in their words would attend to their wants.

After playing many parts, such as being a medium of decorative art, a standard of value, and a means of good and evil in society, along with higher uses in the coinage of empires and the representation of the Godhead, gold renders its last symbolic service in providing a pavement for the feet of the saints ( Revelation 21:21).

G. M. Mackie.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [3]

זהב ,  Genesis 24:22 , and very frequently in all other parts of the Old Testament; χρυσος ,  Matthew 23:16-17 , &c; the most perfect and valuable of the metals. In  Job 28:15-19 , gold is mentioned five times, and four of the words are different in the original:

1. סגור , which may mean "gold in the mine," or "shut up," as the root signifies, "in the ore,"

2. כתם , kethem, from כתם , catham, "to sign," "seal," or "stamp;"

gold made current by being coined; standard gold, exhibiting the stamp expressive of its value.

3. זהב , wrought gold, pure, highly polished gold.

4. פז , denoting solidity, compactness, and strength; probably gold formed into different kinds of plate, or vessels. Jerom, in his comment on  Jeremiah 10:9 , writes "Septem dominibus apud Hebraeos appellatur aurum." The seven names, which he does not mention, are as follows, and thus distinguished by the Hebrews:

1. Zahab, gold in general.

2. Zahab tob, good gold, of a more valuable kind,   Genesis 2:12 .

3. Zahab Ophir, gold of Ophir,   1 Kings 9:28 , such as was brought by the navy of Solomon.

4. Zahab muphaz, solid gold, pure, wrought gold, translated, 1

Kings  1 Kings 10:18 , "the best gold."

5. Zahab shachut, beaten gold,   2 Chronicles 9:15 .

6. Zahab segor, shut up gold; either as mentioned above, gold in the ore, or as the rabbins explain it, "gold shut up in the treasuries," gold in bullion.

7. Zahab parvaim,   2 Chronicles 3:6 . To these Buxtorf adds three others:

1. כתם , pure gold of the circulating medium.

2. בצד , gold in the treasury.

3. חרצז , choice, fine gold. Arabia had formerly its golden mines. "The gold of Sheba,"  Psalms 72:15 , is, in the Septuagint and Arabic versions, "the gold of Arabia." Sheba was the ancient name of Arabia Felix.

Mr. Bruce, however, places it in Africa, at Azab. The gold of Ophir, so often mentioned, must be that which was procured in Arabia, on the coast of the Red Sea. We are assured by Sanchoniathon, as quoted by Eusebius, and by Herodotus, that the Phenicians carried on a considerable traffic with this gold even before the days of Job, who speaks of it,  Psalms 22:24 .

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [4]

Zâhâb ( זָהָב , Strong'S #2091), “gold.” This word has cognates in Arabic and Aramaic. It occurs about 385 times in biblical Hebrew and in every period.

Zâhâb can refer to “gold ore,” or “gold in its raw state.” This is its meaning in its first biblical appearance: “The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold” (Gen. 2:11). The word can also be used of “gold” which has already been refined: “But he knoweth the way that I take: when he hath tried me, I shall come forth as gold” (Job 23:10). “Gold” could be beaten (1 Kings 10:16) and purified (Exod. 25:11). One can also speak of the best “gold” (2 Chron. 3:5).

Zâhâb can be conceived of as an “object of wealth”: “And Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold” (Gen. 13:2). As such, the emphasis is on “gold” as a valuable or precious commodity. Consequently, the word is used in comparisons: “The gold and the crystal cannot equal it: and the exchange of it shall not be for jewels of fine gold” (Job 28:17).

“Gold” was often one of the spoils of war: “But all the silver, and gold, and vessels of brass and iron, are consecrated unto the Lord: they shall come into the treasury of the Lord” (Josh. 6:19).

“Gold” was bought and sold as an object of merchandise: “The merchants of Sheba and Raamah, they were thy merchants: they [paid for your wares] with chief of all spices, and with all precious stones, and gold” (Ezek. 27:22).

Zâhâb was used as a costly gift: “And Balaam answered and said unto the servants of Balak, If Balak would give me his house full of silver and gold, I [could not do anything] …” (Num. 22:18).

This metal was used as a material to make jewelry and other valuable items: “And it came to pass, as the camels had done drinking, that the man took a golden earring of half a shekel weight, and two bracelets for her hands of ten shekels weight of gold …” (Gen. 24:22). Solomon’s temple was adorned with “gold” (1 Kings 6:20-28).

Gold was used as money, being exchanged in various weights and values (according to its weight): “And he made three hundred shields of beaten gold; three pound of gold went to one shield …” (1 Kings 10:17; cf. 2 Sam. 12:30). “Gold” even existed in the form of “coins” (Ezra 2:69).

Zâhâb is used for the color “gold”: “What be these two olive branches which through the two golden pipes empty the golden oil out of themselves?” (Zech. 4:12).

Easton's Bible Dictionary [5]

  • Heb. haruts, i.e., dug out; poetic for gold ( Proverbs 8:10;  16:16;  Zechariah 9:3 ).

    Gold was known from the earliest times ( Genesis 2:11 ). It was principally used for ornaments ( Genesis 24:22 ). It was very abundant ( 1 Chronicles 22:14;  Nahum 2:9;  Daniel 3:1 ). Many tons of it were used in connection with the temple ( 2 Chronicles 1:15 ). It was found in Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir ( 1 Kings 9:28;  10:1;  Job 28:16 ), but not in Palestine.

    In  Daniel 2:38 , the Babylonian Empire is spoken of as a "head of gold" because of its great riches; and Babylon was called by ( Isaiah 14:4 ) the "golden city" (RSV marg., "exactress," adopting the reading Marhebah , Instead of the usual word Madhebah ).

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Gold'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. 1897.

  • Fausset's Bible Dictionary [6]

    Emblem of purity ( Job 23:10), of nobility ( Lamentations 4:1). Ζaahaab , "yellow gold," as Geld from Gel , yellow. Sagur , "treasured gold " ( 1 Kings 6:20). Ρaz , "native gold" ( Job 28:17;  Song of Solomon 5:15). Βetser , "gold earth," i.e. raw ore ( Job 22:24). Κethem , figuratively ( Job 37:22 margin) "golden splendor"; but Maurer literally, "gold is to be found in northern regions, but God cannot, be found out because of His majesty" (compare Job 28). Charuts , "dug out gold" ( Proverbs 8:10).

    It was not coined in ancient times, but is represented on Egyptian tombs as weighed out in the form of rings of fixed weight ( Genesis 43:21). Simon Maccabeus (1 Maccabees 15) was the first who coined Jewish money. Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir, Uphaz, and Parvaim (used for "gold" in  Job 22:24), were the gold producing countries. It is no longer found in Arabia. The Asiatics have always possessed more gold in ornaments than in money.

    Morrish Bible Dictionary [7]

    The well-known precious metal. It was discovered very early.  Genesis 2:11,12 . It was purified by fire.  Proverbs 17:3;  Zechariah 13:9; and we read of 'choice gold,' 'fine gold,' 'pure gold.' Precious things are compared with gold to show their value.  Psalm 119:72,127 . It was extensively used in the tabernacle and in the temple; some things being made of gold, and others being overlaid with it. For fabrics the gold was beaten into thin plates and cut into wires to be woven with the blue, the purple, and the fine twined linen. The heavenly Jerusalem is also described as of 'pure gold.'  Revelation 21:18,21 . Being the most costly metal it is regarded as symbolical of what pertains to God, and as signifying divine righteousness. The Lord Jesus counselled the poor Laodiceans to buy of Him 'gold tried in the fire,' that they might be rich.  Revelation 3:18 .

    American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [8]

    A well-known valuable metal, found in many parts of the world, and obtained anciently in Ophir,  Job 28:16; Parvaim,  2 Chronicles 3:6; Sheba, and Raamah,  Ezekiel 27:22 . Job alludes to gold in various forms,  Job 22:24   28:15-19 . Abraham was rich in it, and female ornaments were early made of it,  Genesis 13:2   24:22,35 . It is spoken of throughout Scripture; and the use of it among and ancient Hebrews, in its native and mixed state, and for the same purposes as at present, was very common. The Ark of the Covenant was overlaid with pure gold; the mercy seat, the vessels and utensils belonging to the tabernacle, and those also of the house of the Lord, as well as the drinking-vessels of Solomon, were of gold.

    King James Dictionary [9]

    GOLD, n.

    1. A precious metal of a bright yellow color, and the most ductile and malleable of all the metals. It is the heaviest metal except platina and being a very dense, fixed substance, and not liable to be injured by air, it is well fitted to be used as coin, or a representative of commodities in commerce. Its ductility and malleability render it the most suitable metal for gilding. It is often found native in solid masses, as in Hungary and Peru though generally in combination with silver, copper or iron. 2. Money.

    For me, the gold of France did not seduce--

    3. Something pleasing or valuable as a heart of gold. 4. A bright yellow color as a flower edged with gold. 5. Riches wealth.

    Gold of pleasure, a plant of the genus Myagrum.

    GOLD, a. Made of gold consisting of gold as a gold chain.

    People's Dictionary of the Bible [10]

    Gold.  Genesis 2:11. Several places axe mentioned by the sacred writers as abounding in gold; such as Ophir,  Job 28:16; Parvaim,  2 Chronicles 3:6; Sheba and Raamah,  Ezekiel 27:22. Until long after the time of David gold was not coined, but was sold by weight as a precious article of commerce.

    Holman Bible Dictionary [11]

    Minerals And Metals

    Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [12]

    GOLD . See Mining and Metals.

    International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [13]

    gōld ( זהב , zāhābh  ; χρυσός , chrusós ):

    1. Terms

    No metal has been more frequently mentioned in Old Testament writings than gold, and none has had more terms applied to it. Among these terms the one most used is zāhābh ̌ . The Arabic equivalent, dhahab , is still the common name for gold throughout Palestine, Syria and Egypt. With zāhābh frequently occur other words which, translated, mean "pure" (  Exodus 25:11 ), "refined" ( 1 Chronicles 28:18 ), "finest" ( 1 Kings 10:18 ), "beaten" ( 1 Kings 10:17 ), "Ophir" ( Psalm 45:9 ).

    Other terms occurring are: פז , pāz , "fine gold" (  Job 28:17;  Psalm 19:10;  Psalm 21:3;  Psalm 119:127;  Proverbs 8:19;  Song of Solomon 5:11 ,  Song of Solomon 5:15;  Isaiah 13:12;  Lamentations 4:2 ); חרוּץ , ḥārūc ( Psalm 68:13;  Proverbs 3:14;  Proverbs 8:10 ,  Proverbs 8:19;  Proverbs 16:16;  Zechariah 9:3 ); כּתם , kethem , literally, "carved out" ( Job 28:16 ,  Job 28:19;  Job 31:24;  Proverbs 25:12;  Lamentations 4:1;  Daniel 10:5 ); סגור , ṣeghōr ( 1 Kings 6:20;  1 Kings 7:50;  Job 28:15 ); בּצר , becer (in the King James Version only:  Job 22:24; the Revised Version (British and American) "treasure").

    2. Sources

    Sources definitely mentioned in the Old Testament are: Havilah ( Genesis 2:11 ,  Genesis 2:12 ); Ophir ( 1 Kings 9:28;  1 Kings 10:11;  1 Kings 22:48;  1 Chronicles 29:4;  2 Chronicles 8:18;  2 Chronicles 9:10;  Job 22:24;  Job 28:16;  Psalm 45:9;  Isaiah 13:12 ); Sheba ( 1 Kings 10:2 ,  1 Kings 10:10;  2 Chronicles 9:1 ,  2 Chronicles 9:9;  Psalm 72:15;  Isaiah 60:6;  Ezekiel 27:22;  Ezekiel 38:13 ); Arabia ( 2 Chronicles 9:14 ). We are not justified in locating any of these places too definitely. They probably all refer to some region of Arabia.

    The late origin of the geological formation of Palestine and Syria precludes the possibility of gold being found in any quantities (see Metals ), so that the large quantities of gold used by the children of Israel in constructing their holy places was not the product of mines in the country, but was from the spoil taken from the inhabitants of the land ( Numbers 31:52 ), or brought with them from Egypt ( Exodus 3:22 ). This gold was probably mined in Egypt or India (possibly Arabia), and brought by the great caravan routes through Arabia to Syria, or by sea in the ships of Tyre ( 1 Kings 10:11 ,  1 Kings 10:22;  Ezekiel 27:21 ,  Ezekiel 27:22 ). There is no doubt about the Egyptian sources. The old workings in the gold-bearing veins of the Egyptian desert and the ruins of the buildings connected with the mining and refining of the precious metal still remain. This region is being reopened with the prospect of its becoming a source of part of the world's supply. It might be inferred from the extensive spoils in gold taken from the Midianites (£100,000 HDB , under the word) that their country (Northwestern Arabia) produced gold. It is more likely that the Midianites had, in turn, captured most of it from other weaker nations. The tradition that Northwestern Arabia is rich in gold still persists. Every year Moslem pilgrims, returning from Mecca by the Damascus route, bring with them specimens of what is supposed to be gold ore. They secure it from the Arabs at the stopping-places along the route. Samples analyzed by the writer have been iron pyrites only. No gold-bearing rock has yet appeared. Whether these specimens come from the mines mentioned by Burton ( The Land of Midian Revisited ) is a question.

    3. Forms

    Gold formed a part of every household treasure ( Genesis 13:2;  Genesis 24:35;  Deuteronomy 8:13;  Deuteronomy 17:17;  Joshua 22:8;  Ezekiel 28:4 ). It was probably treasured ( a ) in the form of nuggets ( Job 28:6 the Revised Version, margin), ( b ) in regularly or irregularly shaped slabs or bars ( Numbers 7:14 ,  Numbers 7:20 ,  Numbers 7:84 ,  Numbers 7:86;  Joshua 7:21 ,  Joshua 7:24;  2 Kings 5:5 ), and ( c ) in the form of dust ( Job 28:6 ). A specimen of yellow dust, which the owner claimed to have taken from an ancient jar, unearthed in the vicinity of the Hauran, was once brought to the writer's laboratory. On examination it was found to contain iron pyrites and metallic gold in finely divided state. It was probably part of an ancient household treasure. A common practice was to make gold into jewelry with the dual purpose of ornamentation and of treasuring it. This custom still prevails, especially among the Moslems, who do not let out their money at interest. A poor woman will save her small coins until she has enough to buy a gold bracelet. This she will wear or put away against the day of need (compare  Genesis 24:22 ,  Genesis 24:53 ). It was weight and not beauty which was noted in the jewels ( Exodus 3:22;  Exodus 11:2;  Exodus 12:35 ). Gold coinage was unknown in the early Old Testament times.

    4. Uses

    (1) The use of gold as the most convenient way of treasuring wealth is mentioned above. (2) Jewelry took many forms: armlets ( Numbers 31:50 ), bracelets ( Genesis 24:22 ), chains ( Genesis 41:42 ), crescents ( Judges 8:26 ), crowns ( 2 Samuel 12:30;  1 Chronicles 20:2 ), earrings ( Exodus 32:2 ,  Exodus 32:3;  Numbers 31:50;  Judges 8:24 ,  Judges 8:26 ), rings ( Genesis 24:22;  Genesis 41:42;  James 2:2 ). (3) Making and decorating objects in connection with places of worship: In the description of the building of the ark and the tabernacle in Ex 25ff, we read of the lavish use of gold in overlaying wood and metals, and in shaping candlesticks, dishes, spoons, flagons, bowls, snuffers, curtain clasps, hooks, etc. (one estimate of the value of gold used is £90,000; see HDB ). In 1 Ki 6ff; 1 Ch 28 f; 2 Ch 1ff are records of still more extensive use of gold in building the temple. (4) Idols were made of gold ( Exodus 20:23;  Exodus 32:4;  Deuteronomy 7:25;  Deuteronomy 29:17;  1 Kings 12:28;  Psalm 115:4;  Psalm 135:15;  Isaiah 30:22;  Revelation 9:20 ). (5) Gold was used for lavish display. Among the fabulous luxuries of Solomon's court were his gold drinking-vessels ( 1 Kings 10:21 ), a throne of ivory overlaid with gold ( 1 Kings 10:18 ), and golden chariot trimmings ( 1 Chronicles 28:18 ). Sacred treasure saved from votive offerings or portions dedicated from booty were principally gold ( Exodus 25:36;  Numbers 7:14 ,  Numbers 7:20 ,  Numbers 7:84 ,  Numbers 7:86;  Numbers 31:50 ,  Numbers 31:52 ,  Numbers 31:54;  Joshua 6:19 ,  Joshua 6:24;  1 Samuel 6:8 ,  1 Samuel 6:11 ,  1 Samuel 6:15;  2 Samuel 8:11;  1 Chronicles 18:7 ,  1 Chronicles 18:10 ,  1 Chronicles 18:11;  1 Chronicles 22:14 ,  1 Chronicles 22:16;  Matthew 23:17 ). This treasure was the spoil most sought after by the enemy. It was paid to them as tribute ( 1 Kings 15:15;  2 Kings 12:18;  2 Kings 14:14;  2 Kings 16:8;  2 Kings 18:14-16;  2 Kings 23:33 ,  2 Kings 23:15 ), or taken as plunder ( 2 Kings 24:13;  2 Kings 25:15 ).

    5. Figurative

    Gold is used to symbolize earthly riches ( Job 3:15;  Job 22:24;  Isaiah 2:7;  Matthew 10:9;  Acts 3:6;  Acts 20:33;  Revelation 18:12 ). Finer than gold, which, physically speaking, is considered non-perishable, typifies incorruptibility ( Acts 17:29;  1 Peter 1:7 ,  1 Peter 1:18;  1 Peter 3:3;  James 5:3 ). Refining of gold is a figure for great purity or a test of ( Job 23:10;  Proverbs 17:3;  Isaiah 1:25;  Malachi 3:2;  1 Peter 1:7;  Revelation 3:18 ). Gold was the most valuable of metals. It stood for anything of great value ( Proverbs 3:14;  Proverbs 8:10 ,  Proverbs 8:19;  Proverbs 16:16 ,  Proverbs 16:22;  Proverbs 25:12 ), hence was most worthy for use in worshipping Yahweh (Ex 25ff;  Revelation 1:12 ,  Revelation 1:13 ,  Revelation 1:10 , etc.), and the adornment of angels ( Revelation 15:6 ) or saints ( Psalm 45:13 ). The head was called golden as being the most precious part of the body ( Song of Solomon 5:11;  Daniel 2:38; compare "the golden bowl,"  Ecclesiastes 12:6 ). "The golden city" meant Babylon ( Isaiah 14:4 ), as did also "the golden cup," sensuality ( Jeremiah 51:7 ). A crown of gold was synonymous with royal honor ( Esther 2:17;  Esther 6:8;  Job 19:9;  Revelation 4:4;  Revelation 14:14 ). Wearing of gold typified lavish adornment and worldly luxury ( Jeremiah 4:30;  Jeremiah 10:4;  1 Timothy 2:9;  1 Peter 3:3;  Revelation 17:4 ). Comparing men to gold suggested their nobility ( Lamentations 4:1 ,  Lamentations 4:2;  2 Timothy 2:20 ).

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [14]

    (Gr. Χρυσός or Χρυσίον , the last being prob. a diminutive of the former and more general term, and therefore expressing gold in a small piece or quantity, especially as wrought, e.g. a golden ornament,  1 Peter 3:3;  Revelation 17:4; [18:16;] or gold coin,  Acts 3:6;  Acts 20:33;  1 Peter 1:18; but also used of the metal generally  Hebrews 9:4;  1 Peter 1:7;  Revelation 3:18;  Revelation 21:18;  Revelation 21:21), the most valuable of metals, from its color, lustre, weight, ductility, and other useful properties (Pliny, H.N. 33:19). As it is only procured in small quantities, its value is less liable to change than that of other metals, and this, with its other qualities, has in all ages rendered it peculiarly available for coin. There are six Hebrew words used to denote it, and four of them occur in  Job 28:15-17. These are:

    1.' זָהָב , Zahab', the common name, connected with צֶהִב tsahab' (to be yellow), as Germ. Geld, from Gelb, yellow. Various epithets are applied to it, as "fine" ( 2 Chronicles 3:5), "refined" ( 1 Chronicles 28:18), "pure" ( Exodus 25:11). In opposition to these, "beaten gold" ( שָׁחוּט ז 8 ) is probably Mixed gold; Sept. Ἐλατός ; used of Solomon's shields ( 1 Kings 10:16). In  Job 37:22 it is rendered in the A.V. "fair weather;" Sept. Νέφη Χρυσαυγοῦντα (comp.  Zechariah 4:12). The corresponding Chald. word is דְּהִב , Dehab ( Daniel 2:32;  Daniel 3:1;  Daniel 3:5;  Daniel 3:7).

    2. סְגוֹר , Segor ( Job 28:15), elsewhere as an epithet, סָגוּר , sagur' (Sept. Κειμέλιον , either from its Compactness, or as being Inclosed or treasured, i.e. fine gold ( 1 Kings 6:20;  1 Kings 7:49, etc.). Many names of precious substances in Hebrew come from roots signifying concealment, as מִטְמוֹן ( Genesis 43:23, A.V. "treasure").

    3. פָּז , Paz', pure or native gold ( Job 28:17; Psalm 19:10; 20:3; 110:127;  Proverbs 8:19;  Song of Solomon 5:11;  Song of Solomon 5:15;  Isaiah 13:12;  Lamentations 4:2; invariably "fine" once "pure"] gold), probably from פָּזִז , paza', to separate. Rosenm Ü ller (Alterthumsk. 4:49) makes it come from a Syriac root meaning Solid or massy; but טָהוֹר ( 2 Chronicles 9:17) corresponds to מוּפָז ( 1 Kings 10:18). The Sept. render it by Λίθος Τιμιος , Χρύσίον Ἄπυρον ( Isaiah 13:12; Theodot. Ἄπεφθον ; comp. Thuc. 2:13; Pliny, 33:19, Obrussa). In  Psalms 119:127, the Sept. render it Τοπάζιον (A.V. "fine gold"); but Schleusner happily conjectures Τό Πάζιον , the Hebrew word being adopted to avoid the repetition of Χρυσὀς (Thes. s.v. Τόπαζ ; Hesych. s.v. Πάζιον ).

    4. בְּצָר , Betsar ( Job 36:19, fig. of Riches), or בֶּצֶד , Be'Tser, gold earth, or a mass of raw ore ( Job 22:24; Sept. Ἄπυρον ; A.V. "Gold as dust").

    The poetical names for gold are:

    5. כֶּתֶם , Ke'Them (also implying something Concealed or Separated,  Job 28:16;  Job 28:19;  Job 31:24;  Psalms 45:9;  Proverbs 25:12;  Song of Solomon 5:11;  Lamentations 4:1;  Daniel 10:5; Sept. Χρυσίον ; and in  Isaiah 13:12 Λιθος Πολυτέλης ).

    6. חָרוּוֹ , Charuts'= "dug out" ( Proverbs 8:10;  Proverbs 8:18), a general name ( Proverbs 3:14;  Proverbs 16:16;  Zechariah 9:3) which has become special ( Psalms 68:13, where it cannot mean gems, as some suppose, Bochart, Hieroz. 2:9). Michaelis connects the word with the Greek Χρυσός .

    Gold was known from the very earliest times ( Genesis 2:11). Pliny attributes the discovery of it (at Mount Pangaeus), and the art of working it to Cadmus (H.V. 7:57); and his statement is adopted by Clemens Alexandrinus (Stromat. 1:363, ed. Pott.). It was at first chiefly used for ornaments, etc. ( Genesis 24:22); and although Abraham is said to have been "very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold" ( Genesis 13:2), yet no mention of it, as used in purchases, is made till after his return from Egypt. Coined money was not known to the ancients (e.g. Homer, Il. 7:473) till a comparatively late period; and on the Egyptian tombs gold is represented as being weighed in rings for commercial purposes (comp.  Genesis 43:21). No coins are found in the ruins of Egypt or Assyria (Layard's Nin. 2:418). "Even so late as the time of David gold was not used as a standard of value, but was considered merely as a very precious article of commerce, and was weighed like other articles" (Jahn, Bibl. Arch. § 115; comp.  1 Chronicles 21:25).

    Gold was extremely abundant in ancient times ( 1 Chronicles 22:14;  Nahum 2:9;  Daniel 3:1); but this did not depreciate its value, because of the enormous quantities consumed by the wealthy in furniture, etc. ( 1 Kings 6:22; x, passim;  Song of Solomon 3:9-10;  Esther 1:6;  Jeremiah 10:9; comp. Homer, Od. 19:55; Herod. 9:82). Probably, too, the art of gilding was known extensively, being applied even to the battlements of a city (Herod. 1:98; and other authorities quoted by Layard, 2:264). Many tons of gold were spent in the building of the Temple alone, though the expression plenteous as stones ( 2 Chronicles 1:15) may be considered as hyperbolical. It is, however, confirmed by the history of the other Asiatic nations, and more especially of the Persians, that the period referred to really abounded in gold, which was imported in vast masses from Africa and the Indies (Heeren, Ideen, 1:1, 37 sq.). The queen of Sheba brought with her (from Arabia Felix) among other presents, 120 talents of gold ( 2 Chronicles 9:9).

    The chief countries mentioned as producing gold are Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir ( 1 Kings 9:28;  1 Kings 10:1;  Job 28:16; in  Job 22:24 the word Ophir is used for gold). Gold is not found in Arabia now (Niebuhr's Travels, page 141), but it used to be (Artemidor. ap. Strabo, 16:3, 18, where he speaks of an Arabian river Ψῆγμα Χρυσοῦ Καταφέρων ). Diodorus also says that it was found there native ( Ἄπυρον ) in good-sized nuggets (Βωλάρια ). Some suppose that Ophir was an Arabian port to which gold was brought (compare  2 Chronicles 2:7;  2 Chronicles 9:10). Other gold- bearing countries were Uphaz ( Jeremiah 10:9;  Daniel 10:5), Parvaim ( 2 Chronicles 3:6), and (at least primevally) Havilah ( Genesis 2:11). No traveler in Palestine makes any mention of gold except Dr. Edward D. Clarke. At the lake of Tiberias, he observes, "Native gold was found here formerly. We noticed an appearance of this kind, but, on account of its trivial nature, neglected to pay proper attention to it, notwithstanding the hints given by more than one writer upon the subject." However, for every practical purpose, it may be said that Palestine has no gold. It is always spoken of by the Jewish writers as a foreign product. As gold was very common, relatively, in Egypt at a very early date, much of that in the hands of the early Hebrews was probably obtained thence ( Exodus 12:33;  Exodus 32:2;  Exodus 32:4;  Exodus 38:24).

    Metallurgic processes are mentioned in  Psalms 66:10;  Proverbs 17:3;  Proverbs 27:21; and in  Isaiah 46:6 the trade of goldsmith (compare  Judges 17:4, צֹרֵ ) is alluded to in connection with the overlaying of idols with gold-leaf (Rosenm Ü ller's Minerals Of Scripture, pages 46-51). (See Goldsmith).

    Gold, in the Scriptures, is the symbol of great value, duration, incorruptibility, and strength ( Isaiah 13:12;  Lamentations 4:2;  2 Timothy 2:20;  Proverbs 18:11;  Job 36:19). In  Daniel 2:38, the Babylonian empire is a "head of gold," so called on account of its great riches; and Babylon was called by Isaiah, as in our version, "the golden city" ( Isaiah 14:4), but more properly "the exactress of gold." In  Ecclesiastes 12:6, some explain the expression "or the golden bowl be broken" of the human head or skull, which resembles a bowl in form. In  Revelation 4:4, "the elders," and  Revelation 9:7, "the locusts, had on their heads crowns of gold." In the costume of the East, a linen turban with a gold ornament was reckoned a crown of gold, and is so called in the language of Scripture ( Leviticus 8:9). Gold denotes spiritually the redeeming merits of Christ ( Revelation 3:18 : "I counsel thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayst be rich"), though others interpret it of being rich in good works before God. In  1 Corinthians 3:12, it seems to denote sincere believers, built, into the Christian Church, who will stand the fiery trial. (See Metal).

    Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [15]

    Gold was known and valued in very early times. Abraham was rich in gold ; and female ornaments were made of gold .

    To judge from; , the Jews must have been, in their prosperous days, in possession of enormous quantities of this metal, considering the many tons of gold that were spent in the building of the temple alone, though the expression, plenteous as stones , may be considered as hyperbolical. It is, however, confirmed by the history of the other Asiatic nations, and more especially of the Persians, that the period referred to really abounded in gold, which was imported in vast masses from Africa and the Indies. The queen of Sheba brought with her (from Arabia Felix), among other presents, 120 talents of gold .