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Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

It is not proposed to embrace in this article all the words which our English versions render by ‘glory’; it is confined to the most important of these-δόξα.

As applied to men and things, δόξα has two principal meanings: (1) honour, praise, good repute ( 2 Corinthians 6:8,  1 Thessalonians 2:6); (2) that which by exciting admiration brings honour or renown; a natural perfection ( 1 Peter 1:24 : ‘the glory of flesh’;  1 Corinthians 15:40-41 : ‘glory of the celestial … the terrestrial,’ etc.;  1 Corinthians 11:15 : ‘l long hair is a glory to a woman’); or a circumstance which reflects glory upon one ( 1 Thessalonians 2:20 : St. Paul’s converts are a ‘glory’ to him;  Ephesians 3:13 : St. Paul’s sufferings are a ‘glory’ to his converts;  2 Corinthians 8:23 : worthy Christians are the ‘glory’ of Christ;  Revelation 21:24-25 : the kings of the earth and the nations bring their ‘glory’ into the New Jerusalem. Cf.  Haggai 2:7-9).

Minor significations are ( a ) that which is falsely regarded as bringing honour to oneself ( Philippians 3:19), and ( b ) persons endued with glory ( Judges 1:8,  2 Peter 2:10 = ‘dignities’ in both Authorized Versionand Revised Version, the reference probably being to angelic powers).

In the numerous and important passages where the idea of ‘glory’ is associated with God and the heavenly world, with Christ, Christians, and the Christian life here and hereafter, we find the same two principal meanings. There is the glory which belongs to the Divine Being in itself, in which God manifests Himself to His creatures, so far as such manifestation is possible, and the glory which He receives back from His creatures; the outshining ( Erscheinungsform ) of the Divine nature, and the reflexion of that outshining in the trust, adoration, and thanksgiving of men and angels, as also in the silent testimony of His works, find especially by the results of the Divine redemption in the character and destiny of the redeemed.


1. The glory which is native to the Being of God .-To the modern mind the chief difficulty of this conception, as presented in the NT, is due to that fusion in it of the physical, the rational, and the ethical, which is characteristic of biblical psychology throughout. In biblical thought these elements are conceived not abstractly, as if constituting separate spheres of being, but as they are given in experience, as inter-dependent and integral to the unity of life. Thus, whatever ethical content comes to be associated with the Glory of God, the basis of the conception is physical-the splendour which is Inseparable from the Divine Presence in the celestial world. In the OT, when Jahweh lifts the veil that hides Him from mortal eyes, the medium of theophany is always Light, a supra-mundane but actually visible radiance (which is localized and assumes a definite uniformity in the Shekinah-glory).

For later Judaistic developments, see Weber’s Jüdische Theologie , pp. 162ff., 275ff. In apocalyptic the ‘glory’ is definitely associated with the sovereignty of God in the heavenly world ( 1 En . xxv. 3), and is especially connected with the Divine Throne ( ib. ix. 4, xiv. 20). In the Ascension of Isaiah (x. 16, xi. 32) it is equivalent to the Person of God; God is ἠ μεγάλη δόξα. δόξα in this sense of ‘radiance’ is unknown to ordinary Greek literature. Deissmann’s suggestion, that this may have been an ancient meaning which survived in the vernacular and so passed into the dialect of the Septuagint, seems more probable than Reitzenstein’s, who, on the ground of certain magical papyri, claims for it an origin in Egyptian-Hellenistic mysticism.

In the NT the same idea lies behind the use of the concept δόξα. Wherever the celestial world is projected into the terrestrial, it is in a radiance of supernatural light ( Matthew 17:5,  Acts 26:13,  Matthew 28:3,  Acts 12:7, etc.); and this is ultimately the radiance that emanates from the presence of God, who dwells in ‘light unapproachable’ ( 1 Timothy 6:16). To this the term δόξα is frequently applied-at Bethlehem ( Luke 2:9), and at the Transfiguration ( 2 Peter 1:17); the ‘glory’ of God is the light of the New Jerusalem; Stephen looking up saw the ‘glory of God’ ( Acts 7:55); and the redeemed are at last presented faultless before the presence of His glory ( Judges 1:24; Jude cf.1 En . xxxix. 12).

With St. Paul the conception is less pictorial; the rational and ethical elements implicit in it come clearly into view. With him also the δόξα is fundamentally associated with the idea of celestial splendour, to which, indeed, his vision of the glorified Christ gave a new and vivid reality; but the idea of revelation, of the Glory as God’s self-manifestation, becomes prominent. St. Paul’s thought does not rest in the symbol, but passes to the reality which it signifies-the transcendent majesty and sovereignty that belong to God as God; and for St. Paul the most sovereign thing in God, divinest in the Divine, is the sacrificial sin-bearing love revealed in the Cross. God’s glory is displayed in His mercy ( Romans 9:23), in the ‘grace which he freely bestowed upon us in the Beloved’ ( Ephesians 1:6); its perfect living reflexion is in the face of Jesus Christ ( 2 Corinthians 4:6). Yet it is the glory, not of an ethical ideal, but of the Living God, God upon the Throne, self-existent, supreme over all being. It is especially associated with the Divine κράτος ( Colossians 1:11,  Ephesians 3:16) and πλοῦτος ( Romans 9:23,  Philippians 4:19,  Ephesians 3:16) by which the Apostle expresses the irresistible sovereign power and the inexhaustible fullness of God in His heavenly dominion. Believers are ‘strengthened with all power, according to the κρἁτος of his glory,’ i.e. in a measure corresponding with the illimitable spiritual power signified by the glory which manifests the Divine King in His supra-mundane Kingdom. Every need of believers is supplied ‘according to his riches in glory, in Christ Jesus’ ( Philippians 4:19), i.e. according to the boundless resources which belong to God as Sovereign of the spiritual universe, and are made available through Christ as Mediator. Christ is raised from the dead through ‘the glory of the Father’ ( Romans 6:4). The precise sense of this expression has not yet been elucidated (in Pss.-Sol . 11:9 there is what seems to be a parallel to it: ἀναστήσαι Κύριος τὸν Ἰσραὴλ ἑν ὀνόματι τῆς δόξης αὐτον), but it would seem that the ‘glory of the Father’ is practically equivalent to the κράτος, the sovereign act of Him who is the ‘Father of glory’ ( Ephesians 1:17). To formulate is hazardous; but perhaps we may say that for St. Paul the δόξα is the self-revelation of the transcendent God, given through Christ, here to faith, in the heavenly world to that more direct mode of perception which we try to express by saying that faith is changed to sight.

2. The Divine glory as communicated .-( a ) As originally given to man, it has been lost ( Romans 3:23).

According to Rabbinic doctrine, when Adam was created in the image of God, a ray (זַיו) of the Divine glory shone upon his countenance, but among the six things lost by the Fall was the זַיו, which went back to heaven (Weber, Jüdische Theologie , p. 222). At Sinai the זַיו was restored to the children of Israel, but was immediately lost again by their unfaithfulness ( ib. p. 275). There can be little doubt that this pictorial rendering or spiritual truth lies behind the Apostle’s peculiar mode of expressing the fact of man’s universal failure to represent the Divine ideal (see Sanday-Headlam in loc. ). The same allusion may possibly serve to explain the obscure passage,  1 Corinthians 11:7.

( b ) But the departed glory is more than restored in Christ, the second Adam, to whom as the Image of God it belongs ( 2 Corinthians 4:4), who is the Lord of Glory ( 1 Corinthians 2:8), and in whose face it shines forth in the darkened hearts of men, as at the Creation light first shone upon the face of the earth ( 2 Corinthians 4:6). Here the conception is emphatically ethical; it is above all the glory of Divine character that shines from the face of Christ and in the hearts of believers. Yet here again the glory is not that of an ethical ideal merely; it is the full, indivisible glory of the Living God of which Christ is the effulgence (ἀπαύγασμα [ Hebrews 1:3]).

( c ) By Christ as Mediator the Divine glory is communicated, not only to believers, but to every agency by which He acts: the Spirit ( 1 Peter 4:14,  Ephesians 3:16), the gospel ( 2 Corinthians 4:4,  1 Timothy 1:11), the ‘mystery’-God’s long-hidden secret, now revealed, the eternal salvation of men by Christ ( Colossians 1:27). The whole Christian dispensation is characterized by ‘glory’ ( 2 Corinthians 3:7-18). As the inferior and temporary nature of the old dispensation is typified in the veiled and fading splendour of Moses, its mediator, the perfection and permanence of the new are witnessed in the unveiled and eternal glory of Christ, which is reflected partly here, more fully hereafter, on His people (a merely figurative interpretation is excluded by the very terms εἰκών and δόξα). Their transfiguration is in process-already the ‘Spirit of glory and the Spirit of God’ rests upon them ( 1 Peter 4:14); at His appearing it will be consummated ( Philippians 3:21,  John 3:3).

( d ) In the majority of cases in which ‘glory’ is predicated of Christ, of Christians, and of the environment of their life, the sense is distinctly eschatological. The sufferings of Christ are contrasted with their after-glories ( 1 Peter 1:11;  1 Peter 1:21); also those of believers ( 1 Peter 4:13,  2 Thessalonians 2:14,  Philippians 3:21). As already in Jewish eschatology, δόξα is a technical term for the state of final salvation, the Heavenly Messianic Kingdom in which Christ now lives and which is to be brought to men by His Parousia. This is the ‘coming glory’ ( Romans 8:18), ‘about to be revealed’ ( 1 Peter 5:1), the ‘inheritance of God in his saints’ ( Ephesians 1:18) unto which they are prepared beforehand ( Romans 9:23), called ( 1 Peter 5:10), led by Christ ( Hebrews 2:10); it is their unwithering crown ( 1 Peter 5:11), the manifestation of their true nature ( Colossians 3:4), their emancipation from all evil limitations ( Romans 8:21); in the hope of it they rejoice ( Romans 5:2); for it they are made meet by the indwelling of Christ ( Colossians 1:27) and by the discipline of the present ( 2 Corinthians 4:17).

II.-The second chief sense in which ‘glory’ is predicated of God or Christ is that which may be termed ascriptional in contrast with essential. Passing over the strictly doxological passages, we note that ‘glory’ is given to God (or to Christ) ( a ) by the character or conduct of men: by the strength of their trust ( Romans 4:20), in eating, drinking, and all that they do ( 1 Corinthians 10:31), by thanksgiving ( 2 Corinthians 4:15), brotherly charity ( 2 Corinthians 8:19), the fruits of righteousness ( Philippians 1:11), repentance and confession of sin ( Revelation 16:9); ( b ) by the results of God’s own saving work, the Exaltation of Christ ( Philippians 2:11), the faithful fulfilment of His promises in Christ ( 2 Corinthians 1:20), the reception of both Jews and Gentiles into the Church ( Romans 15:7), the predestination of believers to the adoption of children ( Ephesians 1:6), the whole accomplishment of that predestination, by faith, the sealing of the Spirit, and final redemption ( Ephesians 1:14), by the marriage of the Lamb, the final and eternal union of Christ with the redeemed, sanctified, and glorified Church. ( Revelation 19:7).

Literature.-There is, so far us known to the present writer, no satisfactory monograph on the subject, either in English or in German. W. Caspari, Die Bedeutungen der Wortsippe כבד im Hebräischen , Leipzig, 1908, is not without value for the student of the NT. H. A. A. Kennedy, St. Paul’s Conception of the Last Things , London, 1904; P. Volz, Jüdische Eschatologie , Tübingen, 1903; F. Weber, Jüdische Theologie 2. Leipzig, 1897; B. Weiss, Bibl. Theol. of NT , Eng. translation3, Edinburgh, 1882-83, i. 396, ii. 187; O. Pfleiderer, Paulinism , Eng. translation, London, 1877, i. 135. Commentaries: Sanday-Headlam (51902), and Godet (1886-87) on Romans  ; Erich Haupt, Die Gefangenschaftsbriefe 7, in Meyer’s Krit.-Exeget. Kommentar , 1902; J. B. Mayor On James (31910), Jude , and Second Peter (1907); articles ‘Glory’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) .

Robert Law.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [2]

Glory (in OT). The first use of this word is to express the exalted honour or praise paid either to things, or to man, or to God. From that it passes to denote the dignity or wealth, whether material or spiritual, that calls forth such honour. Thence it has come to mean, in the OT especially, the majesty and splendour that attend the revelation of the power or character of God. The principal Heb. word ( kâbôd ) for ‘glory’ is derived from a root denoting heaviness . The root may be seen in   Isaiah 1:4 , ‘a people heavy with the burden of iniquity.’ For its derived use, cf. ‘loaded with honours,’ ‘weight of glory.’ A few illustrations of each of these uses may be given.

1. It is only necessary to mention the constantly recurring phrase ‘ glory to God’ (  Joshua 7:16 ,   Psalms 29:1 etc.). As applying to man may be quoted, ‘the wise shall inherit glory ’ (  Proverbs 3:35 ).

2. Phrases such as ‘the glory of Lebanon’ (  Isaiah 35:2 ), i.e. the cedars; ‘of his house’ (  Psalms 49:16 ), i.e. his material possessions; ‘the glory and honour of the nations’ (  Revelation 21:26 ), parallel with ‘the wealth of the nations’ in   Isaiah 60:11 , may be quoted here. ‘My glory ’ (  Genesis 49:6 ,   Psalms 16:9;   Psalms 30:12;   Psalms 57:8 etc.) is used as synonymous with ‘soul,’ and denotes the noblest part of man; cf. also   Psalms 8:5 . Jehovah is called ‘the glory’ of Israel as the proudest possession of His people (  Jeremiah 2:11; cf.   1 Samuel 4:21-22 ,   Luke 2:32 ). With reference to God may be named   Psalms 19:1 , His wisdom and strength; and   Psalms 63:2 , the worthiness of His moral government.

3. Two uses of the expression ‘the glory of Jehovah’ are to be noted. ( a ) The manifestation of His glory in the self-revelation of His character and being, e.g .   Isaiah 6:3 . Here ‘glory’ is the showing forth of God’s holiness. For God’s glory manifested in history and in the control of the nations, see   Numbers 14:22 ,   Ezekiel 39:21; in nature,   Psalms 29:3;   Psalms 29:6;   Psalms 104:31 . ( b ) A physical manifestation of the Divine Presence . This is especially notable in Ezekiel, e.g.   Ezekiel 1:28 , where the glory is bright like the rainbow. In the P [Note: Priestly Narrative.] sections of the Pentateuch such representations are frequent (see   Exodus 24:16-18 ,   Leviticus 9:8 etc.). A passage combining these two conceptions is the story of the theophany to Moses (  Exodus 33:17-23;   Exodus 34:6-7 ). Here the visible glory, the brightness of Jehovah’s face, may not be seen. The spiritual glory is revealed in the proclamation of the name of Jehovah, full of compassion and gracious.

Wilfrid J. Moulton.

GLORY (in Apocr. [Note: Apocrypha, Apocryphal.] and NT). Except in   1 Peter 2:20 (where it means renown), ‘glory,’ as a noun, is always the translation of Gr. doxa . This word, coming from a root meaning ‘to seem,’ might signify outward appearance only, or, in a secondary sense, opinion. This use is not found in the Biblical writings, but the derived classical use favourable opinion or reputation, and hence exalted honour or, as applied to things, splendour, is very common ( Wis 8:10 ,   Romans 2:7-10 , Bar 2:17 ,   John 9:24 , Sir 43:1; Sir 50:7 ). The special LXX [Note: Septuagint.] use of ‘glory’ for the physical or ethical manifestation of the greatness of God is also frequent. In AV [Note: Authorized Version.] of NT doxa is occasionally translated ‘honour’ ( e.g.   John 5:41 ,   2 Corinthians 6:8 etc.); in Apocrypha sometimes ‘honour’ 1E  Esther 8:4 etc.), and a few times ‘pomp’ ( 1Ma 10:86; 1Ma 11:6 etc.), or ‘majesty’ (Ad. Est 15:7); otherwise it is uniformly rendered ‘glory.’ As a verb, ‘glory’ in the sense of boast (Gr. kauchaomai ) is frequently found ( Sir 11:4 ,   1 Corinthians 1:29 ).

A few examples of the use of ‘glory’ to denote the brightness of goodness may be given. In Bar 5:4 is the striking phrase ‘the glory of godliness,’ whilst wisdom is called ‘a clear effluence of the glory of the Almighty’ ( Wis 7:26 ). In  John 1:14 the ‘glory’ of the Only-begotten consists in grace and truth (cf.   John 2:11;   John 17:5;   John 17:22 ). In   Romans 3:23 the ‘glory’ of God, of which men have fallen short, is His manifested excellence, revealed at first in man made in God’s image (cf.   1 Corinthians 11:7 a), lost through sin, but meant to be recovered as he is transfigured ‘from glory to glory’ (  2 Corinthians 3:18 ). For ‘glory’ as used to express the visible brightness, cf. Tob 12:15 , where Raphael goes in before the glory of the Holy One (cf. 2Ma 3:26 , of angels). In NT, cf.   Luke 2:9 ‘The glory of the Lord shone round about them.’ In   2 Corinthians 3:7-11 the double use of ‘glory’ is clearly seen; the fading brightness on the face of Moses is contrasted with the abiding spiritual glory of the new covenant. Passages which combine both the ethical and the physical meanings are those which speak of the glory of the Son of Man (  Matthew 16:27 etc.), and the glory, both of brightness and of purity, which gives light to the heavenly city (  Revelation 21:23 ). ‘Glory,’ as applied to the saints, culminates in a state where both body and spirit are fully changed into the likeness of the glorified Lord (  Philippians 3:21 ,   Colossians 3:4 ).

In Wis 18:24 a special use appears, where ‘the glories of the fathers’ is a phrase for the names of the twelve tribes, written on the precious stones of the high-priestly breastplate. Doubtless this is suggested by the flashing gems. An interesting parallel is given in Murray, Eng. Dict. s.v .: ‘They presented to his Electoral Highness … the Two Stars or Glories, and Two Pieces of Ribbon of the Order [of the Garter]’; cf. Kalisch on   Exodus 28:1-43 ‘The jewels are the emblems of the stars, which they rival in splendour.’

Wilfrid J. Moulton.

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology [3]

Natural Objects . When used in reference to natural objects "glory" may refer to the brightness of heavenly bodies ( Acts 22:11; 1Col 15:41), the fruitfulness of a forest ( Isaiah 35:2;  60:13 ), the awesomeness of a horse's snorting ( Job 39:20 ), or the ornateness of expensive clothing ( Luke 7:25 ).

Human Beings . The glory of human beings is spoken of in reference to a number of external manifestations and conditions, aspects of internal character, and the inherent condition of human nature. As applied to external manifestations and conditions of human beings, glory may refer to position, possessions, strength, or length of life.

Joseph's glory ( Genesis 45:13 ) is his position in Egypt, David's ( Psalm 21:5 ) and Jehoiakim's ( Jeremiah 22:18 ) their royal position in Judah, and Joshua's ( Numbers 27:20 ) his position of authority over the people of God.

In the sense of possessions, Jacob's glory ( Genesis 31:1 ) is his servants and animals ( Genesis 30:43 ). Glory is the wealth of the wicked rich ( Psalm 49:17 ) as well as of the industrious, ideal wife ( Proverbs 31:24-25 ). And the wealth of the nations is the glory of restored Jerusalem ( Isaiah 66:11-12 ).

"The glory of young men is their strength" ( Proverbs 20:29 ), and glory as strength is illustrated in the righteous Job ( Job 29:20 ), the arrogant king of Assyria ( Isaiah 8:7 ), and the long life of the elderly ( Proverbs 16:31 ).

At a somewhat deeper level, glory can be seen in various aspects of human character such as willingness to overlook the faults of others ( Proverbs 19:11 ) or avoiding strife ( Proverbs 20:3 ).

Further,  Psalm 8:5 ("You crowned him with glory and honor") may point to an even more essential glory in humans, an inherent glory resulting from their being created in God's image (cf. 1Col 11:7). While humans may not have entirely lost this God-given glory through their fall into sin, their pursuit of folly shows that they do not live up to their glorious calling (  Proverbs 26:1 ). Moreover, this human glory, which can often be viewed as a positive good or at least neutrally, can also get out of hand and become an expression of independence from God ( Isaiah 10:12 ) and pride ( Proverbs 25:27 ).

God . The most significant use of the ideas of glory and majesty is their application to God. In this regard, it is sometimes stated that God's glory is the external manifestation of his being. God's glory is something that appears ( Exodus 16:10 ), is revealed ( Isaiah 40:5 ), or can be seen ( Numbers 14:22 ). There is also a more fundamental sense in which God has glory prior to any external manifestation of it. An important passage in this regard is  Exodus 33:18-23 , which shows that, while there are aspects of God's nature that are revealed to Moses (his name, "back"), there are other aspects that are not manifested (his glory, "face"). Thus, God's glory exists prior to and apart from any manifestation of it.

The same teaching is implied in  John 17:5 , when Christ refers to the glory that he had with the Father before the world was. And in  Proverbs 25:2 , the glory of God is in concealing, rather than in manifesting. Moreover, the titles of God as the Glorious One ( Psalm 3:3 ) and the Majesty on High ( Hebrews 1:3;  8:1 ) point to the same conclusion, that God's glory is fundamentally independent of external manifestation.

In keeping with this thought, glory is spoken of as attaching to God's kingly rule ( Psalm 145:11-12 ) and his presence ( Psalm 96:6 ), and as being his clothing ( Job 40:10;  Psalm 93:1;  104:1 ) and above the heavens ( Psalm 8:1;  113:4;  148:13 ).

Yet it is true that God's glory is also manifest. It is in the thunderstorm ( Job 37:22;  Psalm 29:4 ) and more commonly in the events and institutions surrounding the exodus from Egypt. Thus, God's glory is seen in the plagues and other miracles ( Numbers 14:22 ), in the cloudy pillar ( Exodus 16:10 ), in the theophany at Mount Sinai ( Exodus 24:17;  Deuteronomy 5:24 ), in the tabernacle ( Exodus 29:43;  40:34-35;  Numbers 14:10;  16:19,42;  20:6 ), in the fire initiating the sacrificial system ( Leviticus 9:23 ), and in the ark of the covenant ( 1 Samuel 4:21-22 ) and the temple of Solomon ( 1 Kings 8:11;  2 Chronicles 7:1-3 ). Its presence is anticipated in the restored Zion ( Psalm 102:15-16;  Isaiah 60:19;  Zechariah 2:5 ), is actualized at the birth of Christ ( Luke 2:9 ), and will be further accomplished in the heavenly Jerusalem ( Revelation 21:11,23 ).

In addition to referring to the actual glory of God, the words sometimes refer to the recognition of his glory. This is of course true whenever we read of giving glory to God or of glorifying him. We do not add to his glory; we merely recognize and acknowledge it. In a number of passages it is difficult to know whether God's glory refers to his actual glory or to human recognition of it. This is true, for example, when Scripture speaks of the earth being full of the glory of the Lord ( Isaiah 6:3 ).

David K. Huttar

See also God

Bibliography . S. Aalen, NIDNTT, 2:44-52; R. B. Dillard, BEB, 2:869-70; M. R. Gordon, ZPEB, 2:730-35; E. F. Harrison, EDT, pp. 443-44; idem, ISBE, 2:477-83; B. L. Ramm, BEB, 1:869-70.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [4]

One of the common words that develops its own special meaning in the Bible is ‘glory’. When used of people or things in relation to everyday life, it may indicate nothing more than honour, fame, power, wealth or splendour ( Genesis 45:13;  2 Kings 14:10;  Isaiah 8:7;  Isaiah 17:4;  Daniel 2:37;  Matthew 4:8;  Matthew 6:29;  John 5:44;  John 7:18). But because it is used more frequently of the majestic all-powerful God, it develops a significance that makes it a characteristic word of both Old and New Testaments.

The glory of the unseen God

Revelations of God’s majesty and power, such as through clouds, fire and lightning, were revelations of his glory ( Exodus 16:10;  Exodus 24:16-17;  Leviticus 9:23-24;  Psalms 29:3-4;  Psalms 29:7-9;  Habakkuk 3:3-4). Glory therefore became associated with brightness or shining. When God’s glory, symbolizing his presence, filled the tabernacle and later the temple, its brightness was so intense that no human being could look upon it ( Exodus 40:34-35;  1 Kings 8:11; see Shekinah ). Even when God allowed people a vision of his glory, it was usually so dazzling that it overpowered them ( Exodus 33:18-19;  Exodus 34:8;  Exodus 34:29-30;  Isaiah 6:1-5;  Ezekiel 1:28;  Luke 2:9;  Revelation 1:13-17).

Such visions were more than exhibitions of overpowering brightness; they were revelations of the nature of God. God’s glory is an expression of his character – his goodness, love, justice, power and holiness ( Exodus 33:18-19;  Exodus 34:6-7;  Psalms 29:3;  Isaiah 6:3;  John 12:41;  Romans 3:23). Therefore, the Bible speaks of the revelation of God through nature and through history as the revelation of his glory ( Psalms 19:1;  Psalms 96:3; see Revelation ).

The glory of Christ and his people

Jesus Christ is the greatest revelation of God’s glory. The presence of God once dwelt in the world in the glory that filled the tabernacle or temple, but now that glory dwelt in the world in the form of a human being ( John 1:14;  James 2:1). The God whom no person could see, except in visions, now revealed himself in Jesus Christ ( John 1:18;  2 Corinthians 4:6;  Hebrews 1:3).

Yet, while believers saw in Jesus the glory of God, unbelievers did not ( John 1:14;  John 2:11;  1 Corinthians 2:8). This was partly because Christ’s glory during his earthly life was not a visible majestic splendour, such as he had as God before the world began. In being born into this world he laid that glory aside; though the event known as the transfiguration was a foretaste of a greater glory that would yet be his ( Matthew 17:1-6;  John 17:5; see Transfiguration ). After the triumph of his life, death and resurrection, God exalted him to heaven’s highest place and gave him heaven’s highest glory ( Philippians 2:6-11;  Hebrews 2:9;  1 Peter 1:11;  1 Peter 1:21).

One promise given to believers in Jesus Christ is that, as they share in Christ’s sufferings in this life, so they will share in his glory in the life to come ( Romans 8:17-18;  2 Corinthians 4:17;  Philippians 3:21;  2 Thessalonians 2:14;  Hebrews 2:10;  1 Peter 5:1;  1 Peter 5:10). In a sense they share in Christ’s glory now and increasingly become like Christ through their devotion to him ( John 17:22;  2 Corinthians 3:18;  1 Peter 4:14). The great revelation of God’s glory at the end of the age will bring salvation to believers and terror to the wicked ( Isaiah 60:1-3;  Isaiah 66:18-19;  Matthew 16:27;  Matthew 24:30;  Matthew 25:31;  Colossians 3:4;  Titus 2:11-14).

Mere human beings cannot add to God’s glory (in the sense of his majesty and power) but they can give him glory (in the sense of honour and praise). They are to glorify him by their words and by their actions ( 1 Samuel 6:5;  Psalms 96:8;  Jeremiah 13:16;  Matthew 5:16;  Acts 12:23;  Romans 4:20;  Romans 11:36;  1 Corinthians 10:31;  2 Corinthians 8:19;  Ephesians 3:21;  Revelation 5:13;  Revelation 14:7).

Morrish Bible Dictionary [5]

There are eight different words in the Hebrew translated 'glory,' but some occur only once. The principal of them are

1. hod, 'renown, glory,' anything for which a being is admired. It is applied to God,  Psalm 148:13; and to the horse.  Job 39:20 .

2. tipharah, tiphereth, 'splendour beauty, glory.' It is applied to God,  Isaiah 60:19; to Israel,  Isaiah 46:13; the crown that wisdom gives,  Proverbs 4:9; the hoary head,  Proverbs 16:31 , etc.

3. kabod , 'weight, honour, glory' (the word commonly used). It is frequently applied to God, as in 'the God of glory,'  Psalm 29:3; to Jehovah as 'the King of glory,'  Psalm 24:7-9; 'the glory of Jehovah' that appeared on Mount Sinai, and that filled the tabernacle,  Exodus 24:16,17;  Exodus 40:34,35 , and will fill the future temple,  Ezekiel 43:2-5; also the glory pertaining to Israel, and to the Gentiles in the past and the future.  1 Samuel 4:21,22;  Isaiah 66:12 .

In the N.T. the word is δόξα, 'esteem, honour, excellency of mind, body,' etc. It is applied to created things, as the sun, moon, and stars,  1 Corinthians 15:41; also to man as the 'glory of God.'  1 Corinthians 11:7 . The moral glory of the Lord Jesus Christ shone out in all His pathway on earth.  John 1:14;  John 11:40 . He speaks of the glory He had from eternity with the Father, and His acquired glory which He will graciously share with His joint heirs.  John 17:5,22,24 . Every tongue shall confess His lordship to the glory of God the Father.  Philippians 2:11 . His glory will be revealed on earth, and He will be hailed 'King of kings and Lord of lords.'  Matthew 25:31;  1 Peter 4:13;  Revelation 17:14;  Revelation 19:16 . He is 'the Lord of glory.'  1 Corinthians 2:8 .

Glory belongs to God: He is the God of glory.  Acts 7:2;  2 Corinthians 4:6,15 . In Him all the divine attributes shine in infinite perfection. Christians in acknowledging this, and owning that from Him come all their blessings, joyfully ascribe unto Him "Praise and honour, glory and power, for ever and ever."  Romans 11:36;  Galatians 1:5;  1 Timothy 1:17;  2 Timothy 4:18 , etc. The same is ascribed to the Lord Jesus by the saints, and will be by every creature.  Revelation 5 .

Glory is often used as expressive of the proper distinction of a person, or of a company: as the glory of the Father,  Romans 6:4; of the Word,  John 1:14; of the children of God,  Romans 8:21; and even of inanimate bodies heavenly and earthly,  1 Corinthians 15:40,41 . Each has its own glory, and such glory is evidently not transferable; for if it could be transferred or communicated, it would lose its specially distinctive force. But glory may be in the nature of distinction conferred, as upon a creature by a superior, and even upon the Lord Himself, viewed as in the place of Man; as on the mount of transfiguration, and at the right hand of God.  2 Peter 1:17;  1 Peter 1:21 . And this is distinction in which others may in measure be permitted to share.  John 17:22 .

Glory may properly attach to a person even under an exterior by which it is not expressed. This was evidently the case with Christ when on earth: the flesh which He assumed in becoming Man served to veil His glory. In the same way the glory of the children of God is not yet manifest, and until it is manifest the glory is the exultation of the heart. This idea is not infrequently found in the Psalms.

And further, this thought of glory hidden brings us to the glory of God, which, in its full expression, is the effulgence or display of Himself in the accomplishment of His counsels, in hope of which Christians rejoice. These counsels hid in God constitute, as one may say, His glory; and in their result they fully display His wisdom, love, and power. Meanwhile they have come to light through Christ being at the right hand of God, and the Holy Ghost given. We have now the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.

The visible manifestation of glory seems connected with light  : it was so on the mount of transfiguration.  Matthew 17:2 . God dwells in "light which no man can approach unto."  1 Timothy 6:16 . In the new Jerusalem the glory of God lightens it, "and the Lamb is the light thereof."  Revelation 21:23 . When the Lord Jesus was revealed to Saul at his conversion, he was blinded by 'the glory of that light,'  Acts 22:11 , but only that divine light might shine into his soul.

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [6]

This word in the abstract, properly speaking belongs only to God; for there can be glory in no other. Hence the prophet speaks to the church, "Thy God thy glory." ( Isaiah 60:19) So that JEHOVAH, in his threefold character of person, is truly and strictly glory. Hence, when the Lord is speaking of the great works of creation, in creating the heavens and stretching them out, and spreading forth the earth; and also of the wonders of redemption by his Son; he confirms the oneness in nature, work, and design of Christ, and the adoration due to him as one with himself; and saith, "I am the Lord, that is my name, and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven images." ( Isaiah 42:5-8.) Where by the way, it may be observed, here is the highest confirmation of the Godhead of Christ. For in the same moment that JEHOVAH declares his jealousy of his name and glory, and that he will not give his glory to another, neither his praise to graven images, he commands both praise and glory to be given to his dear Son, whom he gives as a covenant to the people, that he may have all the praise and glory of redemption. A plain proof that in JEHOVAH'S esteem Christ is one with the Father, "over all, God blessed for ever." Amen. ( Romans 9:5) The glory of JEHOVAH, though, no doubt, existing personally in the essence of the GODHEAD, can only be known by his creatures in the manifestation of it. "He dwells in that light, or glory, which no man can approach unto." So that all we can know or conceive of his glory, must result from such manifestations as he hath been pleased to make of himself in his works. Thus when Moses desired, that the Lord would shew him his glory, the Lord said, "I will make all my goodness pass before thee; and I will proclaim the name of the Lord." ( Exodus 33:18-19) His name, which is his person, therefore is, in the abstract; glory; and the manifestation of it is in his ways and winks. Hence the church is said to be his glory, inasmuch as the Lord is glorified in her salvation. For as the glorious Head of his body the church in his mediatorial character, "is the brightness of his Father's glory, and the express image of his person;" so the brethren, the messengers of the churches, are said to be the glory of Christ,  2 Corinthians 8:23. And the Lord promiseth to be to the church, not only "a wall of fire to defend round about, but the glory in the midst." ( Zechariah 2:5)

Names are sometimes given by the vanity of men to creatures concerning glory, but the holy Scriptures express their total disapprobation of it. Thus the Lord, speaking of the pride of the king of Assyria, ( Isaiah 8:7) declares, that all his glory shall come to nought. And the Lord Jesus speaking of Solomon's glory, describes it as nothing compared to the humblest lilies of the field. ( Matthew 6:28-29) And hence that gracious precept of the Lord by the prophet: "Thus saith the Lord, Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his might; let not the rich man glory in his riches; but let him that glorieth, glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth me, that I am the Lord which exercise loving kindness, judgment, and righteousness in the earth; for in these things I delight, saith the Lord." ( Jeremiah 9:23-24)

I cannot forbear requesting the reader's attention, under this article, to a sweet and interesting feature of Christ, as the Glory-man Christ Jesus. I say, as the Glory-man; for I would beg to be understood, that this name is peculiarly belonging to our Jesus, and to him only. His people in him, and through him, will hereafter be brought to glory, and will be, we are told, in point of glory as the angels. ( Matthew 22:30) But though glorious from a derived glory from Christ, yet not glory, in the abstract, in themselves. This is peculiarly and personally his; so that Jesus is the Glory-man, as the God-man Mediator. If the reader would wish to see the Scripture authority for this name, he will find it  John 17:5 where the glory Jesus then speaks of as Mediator, was unquestionably the glory in which he stood up at the call of God when "the Lord possessed him in the beginning of his ways before his works of old, and when his delights were with the sons of men." (See  Proverbs 8:22-31)

I would only beg to add one thought more upon this subject, and to observe to the true believer in Jesus the blessedness the heart of that man feels, who, to such views of the divine glory, can set to his seal the truth of it in his own personal experience, when with the apostle he can say, "God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ." ( 2 Corinthians 4:6)

Holman Bible Dictionary [7]

 1 Samuel 4:18 Proverbs 27:3 Exodus 18:18 Psalm 38:4 Genesis 12:10 Genesis 47:4 Exodus 4:10 Exodus 7:14 Genesis 13:2 Exodus 12:38 Numbers 20:20 1 Kings 10:2

The verb thus often comes to mean, “give weight to, honor” ( Exodus 20:12;  1 Samuel 15:30;  Psalm 15:4;  Proverbs 4:8;  Isaiah 3:5 ). Such honor which people give to one another is a recognition of the place of the honored person in the human community. A nation can have such honor or glory ( Isaiah 16:14;  Isaiah 17:3 ). This is not so much something someone bestows on another as a quality of importance which a person, group, or nation has and which another recognizes. “To give glory” is to praise, to recognize the importance of another, the weight the other carries in the community. In the Psalms people give such glory to God, that is they recognize the essential nature of His Godness that gives Him importance and weight in relationship to the human worshiping community. (Compare  Psalm 22:23;  Psalm 86:12;  Isaiah 24:15 .) Human praise to God can be false, not truly recognizing His importance ( Isaiah 29:13; compare  1 Samuel 2:30 ). At times God creates glory for Himself ( Exodus 14:4 ,  Exodus 14:17;  Ezekiel 28:22 ). As one confesses guilt and accepts rightful punishment, one is called upon to recognize the righteousness and justice of God and give Him glory ( Joshua 7:19;  1 Samuel 6:5 ). God thus reveals His glory in His just dealings with humans. He also reveals it in the storms and events of nature ( Psalm 29:1; compare  Isaiah 6:1 ). Glory is thus that side of God which humans recognize and to which humans respond in confession, worship, and praise. (Compare  Isaiah 58:8;  Isaiah 60:1 .) Still, for the Old Testament, the greatest revelation of divine glory came on Sinai ( Deuteronomy 5:24 ). Yet such experiences are awesome and fearful ( Deuteronomy 5:25 ). Such revelation does not, however, reveal all of God, for no person can see the entirety of the divine glory, not even Moses ( Exodus 33:17-23 ).

The New Testament uses doxa to express glory and limits the meaning to God's glory. In classical Greek doxa means opinion, conjecture, expectation, and then praise. New Testament carries forward the Old Testament meaning of divine power and majesty (  Acts 7:2;  Ephesians 1:17;  2 Peter 1:17 ). The New Testament extends this to Christ as having divine glory ( Luke 9:32;  John 1:14;  1 Corinthians 2:8;  2 Thessalonians 2:14 ).

Divine glory means that humans do not seek glory for themselves ( Matthew 6:2;  John 5:44;  1 Thessalonians 2:6 ). They only look to receive praise and honor from Christ ( Romans 2:7;  Romans 5:2;  1 Thessalonians 2:19;  Philippians 2:16 ).

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [8]

A. Noun.

Tiph'ârâh ( תִּפְאֶרֶת , Strong'S #8597), “glory; beauty; ornament; distinction; pride.” This word appears about 51 times and in all periods of biblical Hebrew. The word represents “beauty,” in the sense of the characteristic enhancing one’s appearance: “And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for glory and for beauty” (Exod. 28:2—the first occurrence). In Isa. 4:2, the word identifies the fruit of the earth as the “beauty” or “adornment” of the survivors of Israel.

Tiph'ârâh (or tiph'ereth ) means “glory” in several instances. The word is used of one’s rank. A crown of “glory” is a crown which, by its richness, indicates high rank—Wisdom will "[present you with] a crown of glory (NASB, “beauty”)” (Prov. 4:9). “The hoary head is a crown of glory” (Prov. 16:31), a reward for righteous living. In Isa. 62:3, the phrase “crown of glory (NASB, “beauty”)” is paralleled by “royal diadem.” This word also modifies the greatness of a king (Esth. 1:4) and the greatness of the inhabitants of Jerusalem (Zech. 12:7). In each of these instances, this word emphasizes the rank of the persons or things so modified. The word is used of one’s renown: “… And to make thee high above all nations which he hath made, in praise, and in name, and in honor [distinction]” (Deut. 26:19).

In another related nuance, tiph'ârâh (or tiph'ereth ) is used of God, to emphasize His rank, renown, and inherent “beauty”: “Thine, O Lord, is the greatness, and the power, and the glory, and the victory, and the majesty …” (1 Chron. 29:11).

This word represents the “honor” of a nation, in the sense of its position before God: "[He has] cast down from heaven unto the earth the beauty [honor or pride] of Israel …” (Lam. 2:1). This nuance is especially clear in passages such as Judg. 4:9: “I will surely go with thee: notwithstanding the journey that thou takest shall not be for thine honor [i.e., distinction]; for the Lord shall sell Sisera into the hand of a woman.”

In Isa. 10:12, tiph'ârâh (or tiph'ereth ) represents a raising of oneself to a high rank in one’s own eyes: “… I will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his high looks.”

B. Verb.

Pâ'ar ( פָּאַר , Strong'S #6286), “to glorify.” This verb occurs 13 times in biblical Hebrew. One appearance of this verb is in Isa. 60:9: “… And to the Holy One of Israel, because he hath gloried thee.”

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [9]

splendour, magnificence. The glory of God in the writings of Moses, denotes, generally, the divine presence; as when he appeared on Mount Sinai; or, the bright cloud which declared his presence, and descended on the tabernacle of the congregation,  Exodus 24:9-10;  Exodus 24:16-17 . Moses, with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy elders of Israel, went up to Mount Sinai, and "saw the glory of the Lord." Now "the glory of the Lord was, as it were, a burning fire on the mountain; and under his feet was, as it were, the brightness of the sapphire stone, resembling heaven itself in clearness." The glory of the Lord appeared to Israel in the cloud also, when he gave them manna and quails,  Exodus 16:7;  Exodus 16:10 . Moses having earnestly begged of God to show his glory to him, God said, "Thou canst not see my face, for there shall no man see me and live. And the Lord said, There is a place by me, and thou shalt stand upon a rock: and it shall come to pass, while my glory passeth by, that I will put thee in the cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with my hand while I pass by; and I will take away my hand, and thou shalt see my back parts:" (the train, the fainter rays of the glory:) "but my face shall not be seen,"  Exodus 33:18 . The ark of God is called the glory of Israel; and the glory of God,  1 Samuel 4:21-22;  Psalms 26:8 . The priestly ornaments are called "garments of glory,"  Exodus 28:2;  Exodus 28:40; and the sacred vessels, "vessels of glory," 1Ma_2:9; 1Ma_2:12 . Solomon "in all his glory," in all his lustre, in his richest ornaments, was not so beautifully arrayed as a lily,  Matthew 6:29;  Luke 12:27 . When the prophets describe the conversion of the Gentiles, they speak of the "glory of the Lord" as filling the earth; that is, his knowledge shall universally prevail, and he shall be every where worshipped and glorified. The term "glory" is used also of the Gospel dispensation by St. Paul; and to express the future felicity of the saints in heaven. When the Hebrews required an oath of any man, they said, "Give glory to God:" confess the truth, give him glory, confess that God knows the most secret thoughts, the very bottom of your hearts,

 Joshua 7:19;  John 9:24 .

King James Dictionary [10]

GLO'RY, n. L. gloria planus hence, bright, shining. Glory, then, is brightness, splendor. The L. floreo, to blossom, to flower, to flourish, is probably of the same family.

1. Brightness luster splendor.

The moon, serene in glory, mounts the sky.

For he received from God the Father honor and glory,when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory.  2 Peter 1

In this passage of Peter, the latter word glory refers to the visible splendor or bright cloud that overshadowed Christ at his transfiguration. The former word glory, though the same in the original, is to be understood in a figurative sense.

2. Splendor magnificence.

Solomon, in all his glory, was not arrayed like one

of these.

3. The circle of rays surrounding the head of a figure in painting. 4. Praise ascribed in adoration honor.

Glory to God in the highest.  Luke 2 .

5. Honor praise fame renown celebrity. The hero pants for glory in the field. It was the glory of Howard to relieve the wretched. 6. The felicity of heaven prepared for the children of God celestial bliss.

Thou shalt guide me with thy counsel,and afterwards receive me to glory.  Psalms 73

7. In scripture, the divine presence or the ark, the manifestation of it.

The glory is departed from Israel.  1 Samuel 4

8. The divine perfections or excellence.

The heavens declare the glory of God.  Psalms 19

9. Honorable representation of God.  1 Corinthians 11.8 . 10. Distinguished honor or ornament that which honors or makes renowned that of which one may boast.

Babylon, the glory of kingdoms.  Isaiah 13

11. Pride boastfulness arrogance as vain glory. 12. Generous pride.

Glo'Ry, L glorior, from gloria.

To exult with joy to rejoice.

Glory ye in his holy name.  Psalms 105;  1 Chronicles 16 .

1. To boast to be proud of.

No one should glory in his prosperity.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [11]

  • The phrase "Give glory to God" ( Joshua 7:19;  Jeremiah 13:16 ) is a Hebrew idiom meaning, "Confess your sins." The words of the Jews to the blind man, "Give God the praise" ( John 9:24 ), are an adjuration to confess. They are equivalent to, "Confess that you are an impostor," "Give God the glory by speaking the truth;" for they denied that a miracle had been wrought.

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Glory'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. 1897.

  • Fausset's Bible Dictionary [12]

    Hebrew Kabod , "weight," alluded to  2 Corinthians 4:17; "our lightness of affliction worketh out for us a weight of glory," exceeding beyond all measure the affliction. "My glory" is my soul, man's noblest part; rather my tongue, as explained in  Acts 2:26. So  Psalms 30:12 margin;  Psalms 57:8;  Psalms 108:1. The tongue, as the soul's interpreter, is the glory of man above the brute, and the instrument of glorifying God, man's highest glory. David not only exults inwardly, but makes his "tongue" and "flesh" sharers of his joy. As God is the saints' glory ( Jeremiah 2:11), so they are His glory ( Jeremiah 13:11;  Isaiah 62:3).

    Charles Buck Theological Dictionary [13]

    Praise, or honour, attributed to God, in adoration or worship. The state of felicity prepared for the righteous.

    See Heaven The glory of God is the manifestation of the divine perfections in creation, providence, and grace. We may be said to give glory to God when we confess our sins, when we love him supremely, when we commit ourselves to him, are zealous in his service, improve our talents, walk humbly, thankfully, and cheerfully before him, and recommend, proclaim, or set forth his excellencies to others.  Joshua 7:19 .  Galatians 2:20 .  John 15:8 .  Psalms 50:23 .  Matthew 5:16 .

    International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [14]

    glō´ri (substantive):

    I. Method of Treatment

    II. General Use of the Term

    1. As Applied to External Things

    2. As Applied to Yahweh

    III. The Uses of Kabhodh

    1. Material Wealth

    2. Human Dignity and Majesty

    3. "My Soul": The Self

    4. Self-Manifestation of God (Yahweh)

    (1)  Exodus 23:18 ff

    (2)  Isaiah 6

    (3)  Psalm 19:1

    (4) Sinai and the Temple

    (5) Ezekiel's Visions

    (6) Messianic Ideal

    (7) Its Ethical Content

    IV. In the Apocrypha and the New Testament

    1. In the Apocrypha

    (1) As Applied to External Things

    (2) As Applied to God

    2. In the New Testament

    (1) As Applied to Men

    (2) As Applied to God

    (3) As Applied to the Saints

    (4) As Applied to the Messianic Kingdom

    3. Its Ethical Significance


    I. Method of Treatment

    In this article we deal, first , with a group of words, translated "glory" in the English Versions of the Bible, and in which the ideas of size, rarity, beauty and adornment are prominent, the emphasis being laid in the first instance in each case upon some external physical characteristic which attracts the attention, and makes the object described by the word significant or prominent.

    These are ( אדּרת , 'addereth ) perhaps to be connected with the Assyrian root 'adaru , meaning "wide," "great"; ( הדר , hādhar , הדרה , hădhārāh ), perhaps with root-meaning of "brightness"; ( הוד , hōdh ), with essentially the same meaning of "brightness," "light"; ( טהר , ṭehār ),   Psalm 89:44 , translated "glory" in the King James Version, in the Revised Version (British and American) rendered "brightness"; (יקרא , yeḳārā' ), an Aramaic root meaning "rare"; (תּפארה , tiph'ārāh ), with the root-meaning of "beauty"; and finally (צבי , cebhı̄ ), perhaps on the basis of the Assyrian ṣabu , meaning "desire," "desirable."

    Secondly , this article will discuss the most common and characteristic word for "glory" in the Old Testament, the Hebrew ( כּבד , kābhōdh ) including the special phrase "the glory of God" or "the glory of Yahweh." In dealing with the Old Testament usage, attention will also be called to the original Hebrew of the Book of Ecclesiasticus or Wisdom of Jesus, the Son of Sirach, cited in this article as Sir. Thirdly , with the Greek word ( δόξα , dóxa ) in the Apocrypha and in the New Testament. The nouns kaúchēma , kaúchēsis , translated "glory" or "glorying" in the New Testament, will be dealt with in the concluding paragraphs in which the use of the word glory as a verb will briefly be discussed. It will be possible within the limits of this article to give only the main outlines of the subject as illustrated by a few of the most significant references. The lexicons and the commentaries must be consulted for the details.

    II. General Use of the Term

    In the first group, as has already been stated, the ideas of beauty, majesty and splendor are prominent. And these qualities are predicated first of all, of things. David determines to make the temple which Solomon is to build "a house of fame and of glory" ( 1 Chronicles 22:5 ).

    1. As Applied to External Things

    Then, and more commonly, glory belongs to men, and especially to men of prominence, like kings. This glory may consist in wealth, power, portion, or even in the inherent majesty and dignity of character of its possessor. The reference is most frequently, however, to the external manifestations. Physical power is suggested in  Deuteronomy 33:17 , where "glory" of the King James Version is replaced by "majesty" in the Revised Version (British and American). The king's glory consists in the multitude of his people ( Proverbs 14:28 ). The glory and the pomp of the rebellious people shall descend into Sheol ( Isaiah 5:14 ). Here the reference is clearly to those external things upon which the people depend, and the possession of which is the ground of their confidence.

    2. As Applied to Yahweh

    But chiefly glory is the possesion and characteristic of Yahweh, and is given by Him to His people or to anything which is connected with Him. In  Isaiah 60:7 the Lord promises to glorify the house of His glory, and the meaning is clearly that He will impart to His house something of the beauty and majesty which belong to Him. Glory is one of the qualities which are distinctive of Yahweh (  1 Chronicles 29:11 ); and Isaiah, in one of his earliest utterances, uses the word "glory" to describe Yahweh's self-manifestation in judgment to bring to naught the pride and power of men ( Isaiah 2:10 ,  Isaiah 2:19 ,  Isaiah 2:21 ). The use of the word in  Psalm 78:61 is not quite certain. The most natural interpretation would perhaps be to refer it to the ark as the symbol of the presence of Yahweh, but in view of the parallel word "strength," it is perhaps better to interpret glory as meaning power, and to suppose that the Psalmist means that Yahweh allowed His power to be temporarily obscured, and Himself to be seemingly humiliated on account of the sin of His people.

    III. The Uses of Kābhōdh

    The use and significance of kābhōdh in the Old Testament and in Sirach: The fundamental idea of this root seems to be "weight," "heaviness," and hence in its primary uses it conveys the idea of some external, physical manifestation of dignity, preëminence or majesty. At least three uses may be distinguished: (1) It defines the wealth or other material possesions which give honor or distinction to a person; (2) The majesty, dignity, splendor or honor of a person; (3) most important of all, it describes the form in which Yahweh (Jehovah) reveals Himself or is the sign and manifestation of His presence.

    1. Material Wealth

    In  Genesis 31:1 (margin "wealth") it describes the flocks and herds which Jacob has acquired; in   Psalm 49:16 f, as the parallelism indicates, it refers to the wealth of the sinner; and in   Isaiah 10:3 it is said that in the day of desolation the heartless plunderers of the poor shall not know where to leave their ill-gotten gain. This idea is also probably to be found in   Haggai 2:7 , where the parallelism seems to indicate that the glory with which Yahweh will fill the house is the treasure which He will bring into it. See also Sirach 9:11, where the glory of the sinner which is not to be envied is probably his wealth.

    2. Human Dignity and Majesty

    It describes the majesty and dignity or honor of men due to their adornment or to their position. In  Genesis 45:13 , Joseph bids his brethren tell their father of his glory in Egypt; according to  Exodus 28:40 , the priestly garments are intended for the glorification of their wearers; in  1 Samuel 4:21 f, the loss of the ark means, for Israel, the loss of her glory, that which gave her distinction from, and preeminence over, her neighbors; in   Isaiah 22:23 it is said that Eliakim is to be a throne of glory, i.e. the source and manifestation of the splendor and dignity of his father's house; in   Job 19:9 the complaint that God has stripped him of his glory must be taken to refer to his dignity and honor. Reference may also be made to the numerous passages in which the glory of Israel and other nations describes their dignity, majesty or distinction; so we hear of the glory of Ephraim (  Hosea 9:11 ), of Moab ( Isaiah 16:14 ), of Kedar ( Isaiah 21:16 ). This use is quite common in Sir. Sirach 3:10 f states that the glory of man comes from the honor of his father; the possessor of wisdom shall inherit glory (4:13; 37:26); note also 4:21 with its reference to "a shame that is glory and grace," and 49:5 where the forfeited independence of Judah is described by the terms "power" and "glory."

    3. "My Soul": The Self

    Closely related to this use of kābhōdh to describe the majesty of men is the group of passages in which the phrase "my glory," in parallelism with נפשׁ , nephesh , "soul," "self," or some similar expression, means the man himself in his most characteristic nature. In the blessing of Jacob (  Genesis 49:6 ) we read, "Unto their assembly, my glory, be not thou united." Other passages are  Psalm 4:2;  Psalm 7:5;  Psalm 16:9;  Psalm 30:12;  Psalm 57:8;  Psalm 108:1 and perhaps   Job 29:20 . Some recent interpreters, partly because of the Septuagint rendering in  Genesis 49:6 ( tá hḗpatá mou ), "my liver," and partly because of the Assyrian root, kabiṭṭu , meaning "temper" or "heart" (see Delitzsch, Assyrisches Handwörterbuch , 317a), would read in all these passages kābhēdh , literally, "liver" as in  Lamentations 2:11 , and interpret the figure as referring to the emotions as the expression of the self. The arguments in favor of the change are not without weight. Of course on either interpretation the language is highly figurative . It hardly seems necessary to change the reading, especially as the Septuagint renders the passages in the Psalms and in Job by doxa , the ordinary Greek rendering for kābhōdh , and it does not seem improbable that in poetry the word kābhōdh might be used to describe the man himself indicating that man as such is honorable and glorious, possibly because as in  Psalm 8:1 , he is thought of as having been crowned by his Creator with glory and honor.

    Before leaving this use of kābhōdh it is necessary to call attention to the fact that in a few cases it is used to describe things, perhaps because these things are thought of as practically personified. The "glory of the forest" (  Isaiah 10:18 ) is clearly a personification, referring to the majestic force of the Assyrians. We may probably assume a personification also in the case of the glory of Lebanon in  Isaiah 35:2;  Isaiah 60:13 , and the nature of the parable in Ezek 31 makes it probable that personification is intended in  Ezekiel 31:18 .

    4. Self-Manfiestation of God (Yahweh)

    But unquestionably the most important use of the word kābhōdh is its employment either with the following gen. God or Yahweh, or absolutely, to describe the method or the circumstances of the self-manifestation of God. In discussing this subject we shall deal first of all with the use of the term as connected with actual or historical manifestations of the Deity, and then with its use to describe the characteristic features of the ideal state of the future, or, otherwise stated, the Messianic kingdom.

    (1)  Exodus 23:18

    The significance of the phrase in its earliest occurrence is by no means clear. Notwithstanding the uncertainty as to the exact documentary connection of the famous passage in  Exodus 33:18 , it seems quite certain that we may claim that this is the earliest historical reference that the Old Testament contains to the glory of Yahweh. "And he (Moses) said, Show me, I pray thee, thy glory. And he (Yahweh) said Thou canst not see my face;... and it shall come to pass, while my glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with my hand until I have passed by: and I will take away my hand, and thou shalt see my back; but my face shall not be seen." The passage in its present form bears unmistakable evidences of the editorial hand, due perhaps, as Baentsch ( Hand-kommentar zum Altes Testament , "Ex-Lev-Nu," 279) suggests, to a desire to transform the primitive, concrete, physical theophany into a revelation of the ethical glory of God, but in its basis it belongs to the Jahwist (Jahwist) and is therefore the earliest literary reference to the glory of God in the Old Testament. The glory of Yahweh is clearly a physical manifestation, a form with hands and rear parts, of which Moses is permitted to catch only a passing glimpse, but the implication is clear that he actually does see Yahweh with his physical eyes.

    It seems not improbable that in its original form it was related that Moses saw the glory, i.e., the form of Yahweh, and thus that we are to find in this narrative the source for the statement in  Numbers 12:8 , that he (Moses) will behold (or perhaps better rendering the tense as a frequentative), beholds the form of Yahweh (see also the description in  Exodus 24:9-11 ). The mention of the cloud ( Exodus 34:5 ) as the accompaniment of the manifestation of Yahweh suggests that the form of Yahweh was thought of as being outlined in cloud and flame, and that Yahweh was originally thought of as manifesting Himself in connection with meteorological or more probably volcanic phenomena.

    (2)  Isaiah 6:1-13

    Later the glory of Yahweh and the form of Yahweh are no longer identical terms, but the glory is still the physical manifestation of the Divine presence. This is clear from Isaiah's account of his great inaugural vision. The prophet sees the enthroned Yahweh with His skirts filling the temple. There is no indication of what it was that he saw or how he recognized that it was Yahweh. The attendant seraphim in addition to the solemn "Holy, Holy, Holy" declare that "the whole earth is full of his glory."

    Unquestionably His glory is here regarded as something visible, something, a part of which at least, Isaiah sees. The glory as such has no ethical significance except in so far as it is the method of manifestation of one who is undoubtedly an ethical being. The phraseology suggests that the skirts which fill the temple and the glory which fills the whole earth refer to the phenomena of fire and smoke. Some think that the smoke is caused by the clouds of incense that would fill the temple in connection with the sacrificial observances. But in view of Isaiah's horror of these observances, this interpretation is very questionable. A more probable interpretation connects the clouds and gloom with the phenomena of a great storm, and even possibly of an earthquake, for it seems highly plausible that the call of Isaiah in the year of the death of King Uzziah coincided with thee great earthquake in the days of Uzziah referred to in  Zechariah 14:5 . (It seems at least probable that the references to the darkness and light in  Zechariah 14:6 f may have their origin in the phenomena attendant upon this earthquake. It is probable that the earthquake by which the prophecy of Amos is dated (  Amos 1:1 ) is also this same historic earthquake.) The clouds and fire attendant upon this storm or earthquake become the media by which the glory of Yahweh is made known to the youthful prophet, and this glory partly reveals and partly conceals the presence of Yahweh of which, through, and in part by means of, these phenomena, Isaiah is made so vividly conscious.

    (3)  Psalm 19:1

    This conception of Isaiah that the glory of Yahweh fills the earth is closely related to the thought of  Psalm 19:1 that "the heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament showeth his handiwork," the difference being that in the psalm Yahweh's glory is manifested in the ordinary rather than in the extraordinary phenomena. Parallel thoughts may be found in   Psalm 8:1;  Psalm 57:5;  Psalm 108:5;  Psalm 113:4 . In  Psalm 29:1 ,  Psalm 29:2 ,  Psalm 29:3 ,  Psalm 29:5 , as in Isaiah, the glory of Yahweh is revealed in the extraordinary physical phenomena which the psalm describes. Glory here is a purely external, meteorological thing and is the manifestation of the presence of Yahweh, no matter whether the psalm is regarded, as it usually is, as a description of a thunderstorm, or whether with von Gall and others it is taken as a description of the phenomena which accompany the inauguration of the Messianic kingdom (see  Joel 2:30 f the English Revised Version).

    (4) Sinai and the Temple

     Deuteronomy 5:24 indicates that in theophany at the time of the giving of the law, the glory and the greatness of Yahweh. consisted in the fire and thick darkness which enveloped the mountain, and out of which Yahweh spoke to the people. Essentially the same idea is expressed in the account of the dedication of Solomon's temple (  1 Kings 8:10 f;   2 Chronicles 5:14 ). The cloud which filled the house of Yahweh, preventing the priests from ministering, is identified with the glory of Yahweh which filled the house. It is noteworthy that in  2 Chronicles 7:1-3 the glory of Yahweh which fills the house manifests itself in the form of the cloud of smoke from the sacrifices which were consumed by the fire coming down from heaven.

    (5) Ezekiel's Visions

    Perhaps the most elaborate description of the glory of Yahweh to be found in the Old Testament is that given by Ezekiel in the various accounts of his visions. It is not easy to interpret his conception, but it seems clear that he does not identify the glory with the stormy clouds, the fire, the cherubim and the chariots. "The appearance of the likeness of the glory of Yahweh" ( Ezekiel 1:28 ) is not applied to all the phenomena which have been described in the preceding verses, but only to the likeness of form which looked like a man above the sapphire throne ( Ezekiel 1:26 ). The same idea is indicated in  Ezekiel 9:3 which states that "the glory of the God of Israel was gone up from the cherub, whereupon it was"; that is, the glory is something peculiar to Yahweh, and is not quite identical with the phenomena which accompany it. This is true of all his visions. The glory of Yahweh manifests itself with all the accompaniments which he describes with such richness of imagery, but the accompaniments are not the glory. For other descriptions of the glory of Yahweh in Ezekiel, see   Ezekiel 3:12 ,  Ezekiel 3:23;  Ezekiel 8:4;  Ezekiel 10:4 ,  Ezekiel 10:18;  Ezekiel 11:22 f.

    Very similar to this conception of Ezekiel is that given in those passages of the Pentateuch which are usually assigned to the Priestly Code. When the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron on account of the lack of food, the glory of Yahweh appeared in the cloud as they "looked toward the wilderness" ( Exodus 16:7 ,  Exodus 16:10; compare  Exodus 24:16 f). And just as in Ezekiel, the glory is distinguished from its attendant circumstances; for after the completion of the Tent of Meeting, the cloud covers the tent, and the glory of Yahweh fills the tabernacle (  Exodus 40:34 f; see also   Leviticus 9:6 ,  Leviticus 9:23;  Numbers 14:21 f;   Numbers 16:19 ,  Numbers 16:42;  Numbers 20:6 ). The same thought is suggested in the references in Sirach 17:13; 45:3.

    (6) Messianic Ideal

    These passages just cited stand on the border between the historical and the ideal descriptions of the glory of Yahweh, for whatever may be one's views as to the historical worth of P's account of the Exodus and the wilderness sojourn, all must agree in seeing in it really the program or constitution for the ideal state of the future. And in this state the distinguishing characteristic is to be the manifest presence of Yahweh in His sanctuary, and this manifestation is the glory. This is the view of Ezekiel, for whom the essential action in the establishment of the new community is the return of the glory of Yahweh to the house of Yahweh ( Ezekiel 43:2 ,  Ezekiel 43:4 ,  Ezekiel 43:5;  Ezekiel 44:4 ). The same thought is expressed very clearly in  Isaiah 4:5 f, which may be rendered on the basis of a slight rearrangement and regrouping of the original, 'And Yahweh will create over ... Mt. Zion ...., a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night; for over everything the glory (of Yahweh) shall be a canopy and a pavilion, and it shall serve as a shelter from the heat, and a refuge and a covert from the storm and the rain.' This translation has the advantage that it furnishes an intelligible and characteristic conclusion to the description of the Messianic age which the chapter contains.   Isaiah 11:10 , reading with the Revised Version, margin, "and his resting-place shall be glory," has the same thought, for it is clearly the glory of Yahweh that is manifested in the resting-place of the root of Jesse, and this resting-place can be none other than Mt. Zion (compare also  Isaiah 24:23 ).

    The Psalms and Deuteronomy-Isaiah have many passages in which this phase of the thought is brought out. For both books the restoration of the people from captivity is to be accompanied by, or, perhaps better, itself is, a revelation of the glory of Yahweh ( Isaiah 40:5 ). The children of Israel have been created for the glory of Yahweh, and hence they must be restored that His glory may be made manifest ( Isaiah 43:7 ). The light of the restored community is to be the glory of Yahweh ( Isaiah 60:1 f). The presence of Yahweh brings grace and glory (  Psalm 84:11 ), and His salvation of those that fear Him causes glory to dwell in the land ( Psalm 85:9 ). To these and many similar passages in Isa and the Psalms may also be added Sirach 36:14, which refers probably to the manifestation of God in glory in the Messianic kingdom.

    (7) Its Ethical Content

    But these passages make it quite evident that "glory" is not always used in the external, literally or figuratively physical sense. It comes to have an ethical significance, and this because, like the holiness with which it is associated in  Isaiah 6:1-13 , it is connected with Yahweh, who is more and more exclusively viewed as an ethical being. As holiness gradually loses its physical sense of aloofness, apartness, and comes to describe moral purity, so glory, because it is an attribute or expression of Yahweh, comes to have a moral sense. This transformation, as we have seen, is already being made in the present text of  Exodus 33:18 ,  Exodus 33:20 , and the connection with holiness in  Isaiah 6:1-13 makes it almost certain that Isaiah gave the word an ethical connotation. So the God of glory of   Psalm 29:3 suggests a moral quality because Yahweh is a moral being. All doubt on this matter disappears when we find the word "glory" used as the term for the essential nature of Yahweh, as we have already found it to be used of man. In   Isaiah 42:8 , "I am Yahweh, that is my name; and my glory will I not give to another," the meaning would seem to be, my essential character and power, that is, my glory, I will not share with other gods (compare also  Isaiah 48:11 ). And in  Isaiah 58:8 the glory must be taken in a figurative sense and refer to Yahweh Himself in His saving grace, who attends His people in advance and in the rear. It hardly seems possible to deny the ethical sense in   Ezekiel 39:21 , where the manifestation of the glory of Yahweh comes as a result of the execution of His purposes of justice and righteousness upon His people. And in  Habakkuk 2:14 , the glory of Yahweh which is to be known throughout the earth cannot be limited to any physical, external thing. It is equivalent to the righteous and just will of Yahweh. These passages are sufficient to prove the ethical significance of the word kābhōdh , but it may be worth while to quote one more passage and this time from  Psalm 97:1-12 with its wonderful description of the blessings of the righteous rule of Yahweh. It is stated in   Psalm 97:6 that "the heavens declare his righteousness, and all the peoples have seen his glory." His righteousness may include, as Kirkpatrick suggests, "His faithfulness to His people and His sovereign justice in the punishment of all," or it may refer only to the former of these qualities; but in any case, it is a moral act, and by it the peoples recognize the glory of Yahweh as the supreme moral ruler.

    IV. In Apocrypha and New Testament

    "Glory" in the apocryphal books and in the New Testament is almost exclusively the translation of the Greek noun doxa ̌ . In all these writings the Old Testament usage seems to be the most important, and it seems to be the fact, if one may judge from the Septuagint and from the original Hebrew of Sir, that the Greek noun doxa , in the great majority of cases, represents the Hebrew kābhōdh , so that the underlying thought is Hebrew, even though the words may be Greek

    1. In the Apocrypha

    (1) As Applied to External Things

    It will be perhaps a little more convenient to deal with the usage of the Apocrypha separately, following essentially the order that has been adopted for the Old Testament discussion of kābhōdh , and bearing in mind that the usage of Sir has been discussed under the Old Testament. The use of the word "glory" to describe the honor, reputation and splendor which belong to men is quite common. In this sense 1 Esdras 1:33 refers to the glory of Josiah, while in The Wisdom of   Song of Solomon 10:14 the perpetual glory given by The Wisdom of Solomon to Joseph must be interpreted in the same way. In   2 Maccabees 5:16,20 glory refers to the beautification and adornment of the temple in a sense like that of tiph'ārāh in   Isaiah 60:7 . In Judith 15:9 "glory" is the translation of the Greek gaurı́ama , and indicates that Judith is the pride of Israel.

    (2) As Applied to God

    But the most significant use of δοχα , doxa in the Apocrypha is that in which it refers to the light and splendor which are regarded as the invariable accompaniments of God. The reference may be to the historic manifestation of God in glory at Mt. Sinai, as in 2 Esdras 3:19, or to the manifestation of God in Israel, which is to be the especial characteristic of the Messianic kingdom. In 1 Esdras 5:61 songs sung to the praise of the Lord, "because his goodness and his glory are forever in all Israel," are based upon the hope that Yahweh is about to establish the Messianic kingdom among the people who have bound themselves to obey His law. In several passages in 2 Esdras the reference seems to be not to the Messianic kingdom in the historical sense, but rather to that kingdom of God which the saints are to inherit after death. This is clearly the thought in 2 Esdras 2:36 and in 7:52; also in 8:51 where the context shows clearly that the reference is to the glory of Paradise, which is the heritage of all those who are like Ezra in their devotion to Yahweh (compare also 2 Esdras 10:50).

    But most frequently in the Apocrypha, in a sense which approximates that of the New Testament, the word "glory" refers to the blaze of light and splendor which is the essential expression of the holy majesty of Yahweh. The prayer of Manasseh refers to the unbearable majesty of the glory of Yahweh; while 2 Esdras 8:30, trusting in Yahweh's glory is equivalent to trusting in Yahweh Himself; and in 16:53 the oath "before God and his glory" is simply before the Lord God Himself. The same thought is expressed in  Tobit 12:15;  13:14; The Wisdom of  Song of Solomon 7:25 . In the Song of three Children, verses 31,33, the glory of Yahweh refers to His self-manifestation in His heavenly kingdom, and this is undoubtedly the significance in the frequently recurring doxologies, "Thine is the glory forever."

    2. In the New Testament

    (1) As Applied to Men

    In the New Testament, much the same variety of usage is to be noted as in the Old Testament and the Apocrypha, and it is not easy to trace the exact relationship and order of the various meanings. The ordinary classical use of the word in the sense of "opinion," "judgment," "view," occurs in Hellenistic Greek only in 4Macc 5:17 (18) on the authority of Thayer.

    It is perhaps as convenient to follow generally the order adopted in the preceding discussion. In some places the word refers to the manifestations and insignia of rank and power, as in the familiar phrase, "Solomon in all his glory" ( Matthew 6:29 ), or the glory of the kingdoms of the world ( Matthew 4:8 ), or the glory of the kings and nations of the earth which shall be brought into the heavenly city ( Revelation 21:24 ,  Revelation 21:26 ). Doxa also defines the praise, honor and dignity of men. This is the meaning in  John 5:41 ,  John 5:44 , where Christ distinguishes between His accusers and Himself in that He receives not glory from men, while they receive glory one of another (compare also  John 7:18 ). In  Ephesians 3:13 , Paul declares that his tribulations for those to whom he is writing are a glory or distinction to them, while in  1 Thessalonians 2:20 he declares that the Thessalonian Christians are his glory and joy.

    (2) As Applied to God

    Closely related to this usage is the employment of the word to ascribe honor and praise to God; see  Luke 17:18 , where only the stranger returned to give glory to God; or  John 9:24 , where the man who had been born blind is bidden to give glory to God; or the phrase "to the glory of God" in  Romans 15:7 , where the meaning is to secure the honor and praise of God among men. Similar is the use in the frequently recurring doxologies such as, "Glory to God in the highest," "to him," that is, to God, "be glory," etc.

    While the foregoing meanings are frequently illustrated in the New Testament, it is undoubtedly true that the characteristic use of the word doxa in the New Testament is in the sense of brightness, brilliance, splendor; and first of all, in the literal sense, referring to the brightness of the heavenly bodies, as in   1 Corinthians 15:40 f, or to the supernatural brightness which overcame Saul of Tarsus on the road to Damascus (  Acts 22:11 ).

    (3) As Applied to the Saints

    But the most common use of the word is to describe the brilliance which is the characteristic of all persons who share in the heavenly glory. Moses, Elijah and Jesus Himself have this glory on the Mountain of Transfiguration ( Luke 9:31 f). It was the same glory which gave the angel who came out of heaven power to lighten the earth (  Revelation 18:1 ), and also which shone about the shepherds when the angel appeared unto them ( Luke 2:9 ). Paul refers to this glory, when he speaks of the face of Moses as it appeared after God had spoken with him ( 2 Corinthians 3:7 f). And as in the case of Moses, so here, the source of this glory is God Himself, who is the God of glory (  Acts 7:2 , and frequently).

    (4) As Applied to the Messianic Kingdom

    It is also used to describe the ideal Messianic kingdom of the future. It is applied to Christ to describe His royal majesty when He comes to set up His kingdom. So James and John ask to sit, one on His right hand and one on His left in His glory ( Mark 10:37 ). Christ is to appear in glory with the angels ( Matthew 16:27 and often), for His condition in the coming age as it was before the incarnation is a condition of glory (  Luke 24:26;  John 17:5 ,  John 17:22 ,  John 17:24 ). But not merely the Messiah, but also all His followers shall share in the glory of the Messianic kingdom. This use is so common that it is scarcely necessary to illustrate it by reference. This glory is to be revealed to all Christians in the future ( Romans 8:18 ,  Romans 8:21;  Romans 9:23; compare also  1 Corinthians 2:7;  2 Corinthians 4:17 ).

    3. Its Ethical Significance

    In all these cases it has a distinctly ethical signification, for it is the term which is used to describe the essential nature, the perfection of the Deity, and is shared by others because they are made partakers of the Divine nature. So Paul refers to "the glory of the incorruptible God" ( Romans 1:23; compare also  Ephesians 1:17 f, and often). And the essential nature of Christ comes to be described in the same way. He has glory as of the only begotten of the Father (  John 1:14 ); he shows His glory in the performance of miracles ( John 2:11 ); and like the Father, He is the Lord of glory ( 1 Corinthians 2:8 ).

    As a verb in the Old Testament the most common signification of the word "glory" is, to make one's boast in or of anything, usually of the pious glorying in Yahweh (Jehovah), but occasionally with some other reference, as in  Jeremiah 9:23 of man glorying in his riches, might or wisdom. In all these cases it represents the Hebrew hith - hallēl ̌ . In  Exodus 8:9 the phrase, "Have thou this glory over me," is the translation of the Hebrew hith - pā'ēr , and means take to thyself the honor or distinction as regards me. In  2 Kings 14:10 it translates the Hebrew hik - kābhēdh , "honor thyself," i.e. be satisfied with the home which you have already attained.

    In the Apocryphal books it means either "glorify thyself," the middle voice of the verb doxázō , as in   Sirach 3:10 , where the original Hebrew has hith - kabbēdh , or "to exult," "boast over," as in   Judith 9:7 , where it represents the Greek gauróomai  ; or "to boast," "take pride in," where it represents, as it does usually in the New Testament, the Greek kaucháomai (  Sirach 17:9;  24:1;  38:25;  39:8;  48:4 , in the second and fourth of which cases it represents the Hebrew hith - pā'ēr ).

    In the New Testament the verb is used 3 times in James, and several times in the Epistles of Paul, and everywhere is used to translate the verb kaucháomai , or, in two cases in James, the same verb is compounded with the preposition katá ̌ . In all these cases the meaning is "to take pride in," "to congratulate oneself," upon anything.

    In this connection attention may be called to the use of the noun "glorying," once or twice rendered "to glory," where the meaning is either the occasion or ground of glorying, or sometimes the act of glorying. The original has kauchēma or kauchēsis ̌ . This usage occurs in   James 4:16;  Hebrews 3:6 , and several times in the Epistles of Paul.


    In addition to the commentaries and works on Biblical theology among which, Briggs, Icc on the Psalms, Scribner, N.Y., 1906, especially the note in I, 66,67; and Weiss, Biblical Theology of the New Testament , English translation, T. and S. Clark, Edinburgh, 1882-83, may be mentioned especially, the chief works on the subject are von Gall, Die Herrlichkeit Gottes , Giessen, 1900; and Caspari, Die Bedeutungen der Wortsippe כבד im Hebraeischen , Leipzig, 1908. The discussions by G. B. Gray and J. Massie in Hdb , II, are valuable, and also the brief but significant article by Zenos in the Standard Bible Dictionary , Funk and Wagnalls, N.Y., 1909.

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [15]

    in the English Version, usually represents the words כָּבוֹד , Kabod', and Δόξα . The Hebrew, from כָּבִד , "to be heavy," is susceptible of the various Analogical meanings which are derived from its root, viz. "to be hard," "honored," "rich," etc. The above Heb. and Gr. terms have the following applications:

    (1.) Abundance, Wealth, Treasures, rendered "honor" in  Psalms 48:12, and "glory" in  Genesis 31:1;  Isaiah 10:3;  Matthew 4:8;  Luke 4:6;  Revelation 21:24;  Revelation 21:26.

    (2.) Honor, Glory, Dignity, as in  1 Kings 3:13;  2 Chronicles 1:11-12;  Proverbs 8:18;  Hebrews 2:7;  1 Peter 1:24;  1 Corinthians 11:7. Spoken of God, as in  Psalms 19:1;  Psalms 29:1;  Isaiah 42:8; of persons in high honor ( Isaiah 5:13;  2 Peter 2:10  Judges 1:8). Also The Honor, Glory, of any one; poet.cally for The Mind, The Heart, as the noblest part of man ( Genesis 49:6;  Psalms 7:5;  Psalms 16:9;  Psalms 30:12;  Psalms 47:8;  Psalms 108:1;  Acts 2:26). Some here assign the signification of "liver," but the liver is never (like the heart and reins) assumed as the seat of the mind and affections.

    (3.) Splendor, Brightness, Glory, Majesty " of all my glory," i.e., Splendor ( Genesis 45:13;  Isaiah 4:5;  Isaiah 11:10;  Isaiah 22:18;  1 Samuel 2:8;  Acts 22:11;  1 Peter 5:4); " the glory of Lebanon," its magnificence, beauty ( Isaiah 35:2;  Isaiah 60:13). So of the sun, stars, etc. ( 1 Corinthians 15:40-41); of Moses's face ( 2 Corinthians 3:7); also of the celestial light which surrounds angels ( Revelation 18:1), or glorified saints ( Luke 9:31-32;  1 Corinthians 15:43;  Colossians 3:4). Spoken especially of The Glory, Majesty, Of Jehovah ( Isaiah 59:19;  Isaiah 60:1;  2 Thessalonians 1:9;  2 Peter 1:17;  Revelation 21:11;  Revelation 21:23), that Fiery Effulgence surrounded with dark clouds in which Jehovah is represented as appearing, or God himself as surrounded by this efful" gence, from which lightnings proceed ( Leviticus 9:23-24;  Numbers 16:35;  Psalms 18:12), such as he manifested when he showed himself at Sinai to Moses and the people ( Exodus 16:7;  Exodus 16:10;  Exodus 24:17;  Exodus 33:18;  Leviticus 9:6;  Leviticus 9:23), or appeared in the tabernacle ( Exodus 40:34), or in the Temple ( 1 Kings 8:11;  2 Chronicles 7:1-2; compare  Luke 2:9;  Luke 9:32;  Acts 7:55;  Acts 22:11), or was seen in prophetic visions ( Isaiah 6:3;  John 12:41;  Ezekiel 1:28;  Ezekiel 8:4;  Ezekiel 10:4;  Ezekiel 10:18;  Ezekiel 43:2;  Ezekiel 43:4;  Ezekiel 44:4;  Revelation 15:8;  Revelation 21:11;  Revelation 21:23). To this corresponds the SHEKINAH of the later Jews (Buxtorf's Lexicon Chald. Talmud. Et Rabbinicum, col. 2394). God appears, too, in glory to punish transgressors ( Leviticus 10:2); and sinners are said to "provoke the eyes of his glory," i.e., of him as thus appearing in his glory for their punishment ( Isaiah 3:8). Spoken also of the expected temporal reign of the Messiah ( Mark 10:37; comp.  Matthew 20:21); and also of the glory of his second coming ( Matthew 16:27;  Matthew 19:28;  Matthew 24:30;  Mark 13:26;  Mark 8:38;  Luke 9:26;  Luke 21:27;  Titus 2:13).

    (4.) Of internal character, i.e. glorious moral attributes. Spoken of God, infinite perfection, divine majesty and holiness ( Psalms 19:1;  Isaiah 40:5;  Acts 7:2;  Romans 1:23;  Ephesians 1:17); so of the divine perfections as manifested in the Power of God ( John 11:40;  Romans 6:4;  Colossians 1:11), or in his Benevolence And Benefience ( Romans 9:23;  Ephesians 1:12;  Ephesians 1:14;  Ephesians 1:18;  Ephesians 3:16). So of Jesus, as the Effulgence of the divine perfections ( Hebrews 1:3;  John 1:14;  John 2:11); also of the Spirit ( 1 Peter 4:14).

    (5.) Of that exalted state of blissful perfection which is the portion of those who dwell with God in heaven; e.g. spoken of Christ, and including also the idea of his regal majesty as Messiah ( Luke 24:26;  John 17:5;  John 17:22;  John 17:24;  2 Thessalonians 2:14;  1 Timothy 3:16;  1 Peter 1:11). Spoken of glorified saints, i.e., salvation, eternal life, etc. ( Romans 2:7;  Romans 2:10;  Romans 5:2;  Romans 8:18;  1 Corinthians 2:7;  2 Corinthians 4:17;  1 Thessalonians 2:12;  2 Timothy 2:10;  Hebrews 2:10;  1 Peter 5:1;  1 Peter 5:10). So to Glorify, when spoken of God and Christ, it render conspicuous and glorious the divine character and attributes of God as glorified by the Son ( John 12:28;  John 13:31-32;  John 14:13;  John 15:8;  John 17:1;  John 17:4); of Christ as glorified by the Father ( John 8:54;  John 13:32;  John 17:1;  John 17:5;  Acts 3:13), or by the Spirit ( John 16:14), or by Christians ( John 17:10), or generally ( Leviticus 10:3;  John 11:4;  John 13:31). Bastow, s.v. (See Glorify).

    Other terms less frequently rendered "glory," "glorious," etc., are: אִדַּיר Laets, large; הָדִר , to Swell; הוֹד , honor; תַּפְאָרָה , beauty, etc.; Κλέος , renown; Καυχάω , to Boast. On these and the above, consult the Heb. and Gr. Lexicons.

    We may be said to give glory to God when we confess our sins, when we love him supremely, when we commit ourselves to him, are zealous in his service, walk humbly, thankfully, and cheerfully before him, and recommend, proclaim, or set forth his excellencies to others ( Matthew 5:16;  John 15:8;  Galatians 2:20). In  Exodus 8:9 we read, "And Moses said unto Pharaoh, Glory over me." The margin has for "glory" "honor," and for "over me" "against me." Pharaoh had besought Moses to pray that the Lord might take away the frogs, and Moses wished the king to have the honor and glory (in preference to himself) of appointing a time when he should thus pray to the Lord to take them away. This was not only complimentary to Pharaoh, but it would have a strong tendency to convince him that the Lord had heard the prayer of Moses, because he himself had appointed the time.

    As man's real glory on earth consists in submitting to the will of God, and in doing it, so will his glory in heaven consist in being eternally pleasing to God, and in finding in him his perfect happiness. There can be no real glory either in this world or in the next, aside from virtue. The glory we seek here consists in the esteem of our fellow-men, and it would never be a false or a dangerous glory if men were wise enough not to esteem anything but what is virtuous. Christ commands us to practice virtue, not in view of gaining the approbation of men, but to please God. At the first glance his instructions as this point may appear somewhat contradictory. He says: "Let your light so shine before men that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven ( Matthew 5:16); then: Take Heed That Ye Do Not Your Alms Before Men, To Be Seen Of Them; Otherwise Ye Have No Reward Of Your Father Which Is In Heaven. Therefore, when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, they have their reward," etc. ( Matthew 6:1 sq.). But these passages are really not contradictory. Christ means that he does not want the desire of being admired and praised by men to be the motive of our good actions; but he wants us to do those good actions in order to edify our neighbors, to lead them by our example to the practice of virtue, so that they may glorify God, and not us. There is a great difference between these two motives: the first is very wrong, the second right and praiseworthy. We are consequently to keep secret our good actions, whenever an opposite course is not necessary for public edification; but when it is, then we are to let them be seen. St. Paul says: "Our rejoicing (or glory) is this, the testimony of our conscience that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, we heave had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to you-ward" ( 2 Corinthians 1:12).

    The word glory, in St. Paul's writings, has often been misunderstood. In speaking of the destiny of the Jews and Gentiles with regard to faith ( Romans 9:22-23), be says: "What if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endued with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction; and that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he bad afore prepared unto glory," etc. We do not think that the word glory here refers to eternal glory, but rather to God's glory here below and to the glory of his Church; for God has really showed its riches in the virtues of those who have been called to faith. St. Paul uses the expression again in the same sense when he speaks ( 1 Corinthians 2:7) of "the hidden wisdom which God ordained before the world unto our glory," and when he says ( Ephesians 1:5-6) that God predestined us for adoption "to the praise of the glory of his grace." So Augustine ( Enarr. In  Psalms 18:3, and in  Psalms 39:4) understands these passages. Bergier, Dict. De Theologie (Paris, 1854), 3:139.