Amasa

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Fausset's Bible Dictionary [1]

1. Son (seemingly illegitimate) of Jether or Ithra, an Ishmaelite, by Abigail, David's sister ( 2 Samuel 17:25;  1 Chronicles 2:15-17). (See Absalom .) Joined his rebellion, probably because neglected by David (as appears from his not being mentioned previously) on account of his Ishmaelite parentage (Zeruiah occurs always without mention of her husband; but Abigail always with her husband Jether, as though in disparagement). Defeated in the wood of Ephraim by Joab (2 Samuel 18).

David, to atone for past neglect, pardoned, and even promoted him to command the army in the room of the overbearing Joab. Amasa's slowness in crushing Sheba's rebellion, perhaps owing to the disinclination of the troops to be under his command, obliged David to dispatch Abishai with the household guards, and Joab accompanied them. Amasa and his force overtook them at "the great stone of Gibeon." There Joab, while taking with his right hand Amasa's beard to kiss him, with his left stabbed him with his sword ( 2 Samuel 20:10).

2. Amasai leader of a body of men of Judah and Benjamin, to join David in the hold at Ziklag; David's apprehension of treachery on the part of his own tribe was dispelled by Amasa's words under the spirit which "clothed" him: "Thine are we, David, and on thy side, thou son of Jesse; peace, peace be unto thee, and peace be to thine helpers, for thy God helpeth thee." (Margin  1 Chronicles 12:16-18.)  1 Chronicles 12:3. A prince of Ephraim, son of Hadlai, who, at the prophet Oded's command from God, opposed the detention of the Jews taken captive by Pekah of Israel from Ahaz of Judah ( 2 Chronicles 28:12).

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [2]

the son of Ithra and Abigail, David's sister, whom Absalom, when he rebelled against his father, appointed general of his army,  2 Samuel 17:25 . Amasa having thus received the command of Absalom's troops, engaged his cousin Joab, general of David's army, and was worsted. But, after the defeat of Absalom's party, David, being angry at Joab for killing Absalom, pardoned Amasa, and gave him the command of his own army. Upon the revolt of Sheba, the son of Bichri, David gave orders to Amasa to assemble all Judah and march against Sheba. Amasa not being able to form his army in the time prescribed, David directed Abishai to pursue Sheba with the guards. Joab, with his people, accompanied him; and these troops were scarcely got as far as the great stone in Gibeon, before Amasa came and joined them with his forces. Then said Joab to Amasa, "Art thou in health, my brother?" and took him by the beard with his right hand to kiss him; and treacherously smote him under the fifth rib, so that he expired.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [3]

1. David's nephew, the son of Abigail, David's sister, and Jether an Ishmaelite. His percentage may have led David to show him less favor than his other nephews, and this may have disposed him to join in the rebellion of Absalom. He was the general of Absalom's army, and was defeated by his cousin Joab,  2 Samuel 17:1-18:33 . David afterwards offered him a pardon and the command of his troops in the place of Joab, whose overbearing conduct he could no longer endure,  2 Samuel 19:13 . But in the confusion of Sheba's rebellion, Amasa was treacherously murdered by his powerful rival,  2 Samuel 20:4-10 . B. C. 1022.

2. A chief of Ephraim, who opposed retaining as bondsmen the men of Judah taken captive in a war with Pekah king of Israel,  2 Chronicles 28:12 .

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [4]

AMASA . 1 . The son of Ithra an Ishmaelite, and of Abigail the sister of king David. He commanded the army of the rebel Absalom (  2 Samuel 17:25 ); but was completely routed by Joab in the forest of Ephraim (  2 Samuel 18:6-8 ). David not only pardoned him, but gave him the command of the army in place of Joab (  2 Samuel 19:13 ). He was treacherously slain by Joab at ‘the great stone of Gibeon’ (  2 Samuel 20:9-12 ). 2 . An Ephraimite who opposed the bringing into Samaria of the Jewish prisoners, whom Pekah, king of Israel, had taken in his campaign against Ahaz (  2 Chronicles 28:12 ).

Smith's Bible Dictionary [5]

Am'asa. (A Burden).

1. Son of Ithra, or Jether, by Abigail, David's sister.  2 Samuel 17:25. He joined in Absalom's rebellion, B.C. 1023, was appointed commander-in-chief and suffered defeat by Joab.  2 Samuel 18:6.

David, incensed against Joab for killing Absalom, forgave Amasa and appointed him Joab's successor.  2 Samuel 19:13 Joab afterwards, when they were both in pursuit of the rebel Sheba, pretending to salute Amasa, stabbed him with his sword.  2 Samuel 20:10

2. A prince of Ephraim, son of Hadlai, in the reign of Ahaz.  2 Chronicles 28:12.

Holman Bible Dictionary [6]

 2 Samuel 17:25 2 Samuel 17:25 1 Chronicles 2:17 2 Samuel 17:25 1 Chronicles 2:16 2 Samuel 18:14 2 Samuel 19:13 2 Samuel 20:4-5 2 Samuel 20:10 1 Kings 2:5 1 Kings 2:28-34 2 2 Chronicles 28:12-14

Morrish Bible Dictionary [7]

1. Son of Ithra,or Jether, by David's sister Abigail, whom Absalom in his revolt made captain of his army. David forgave him and promised him the command of the army, but he was treacherously slain by Joab. David left it to his son Solomon to revenge this act.  2 Samuel 17:25;  2 Samuel 19:13;  2 Samuel 20:4-12;  1 Kings 2:5,32;  1 Chronicles 2:17 .

2. An Ephraimite who resisted the bringing into Samaria prisoners from Judah.  2 Chronicles 28:12-15 .

Easton's Bible Dictionary [8]

  • A son of Hadlai, and chief of Ephraim ( 2 Chronicles 28:12 ) in the reign of Ahaz.

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Amasa'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ebd/a/amasa.html. 1897.

  • People's Dictionary of the Bible [9]

    Amasa ( Ăm'A-Sah ), Burden. 1. A kinsman of David, and chief captain in Absalom's rebel army. David pardoned Amasa, but he was assassinated by Joab.  2 Samuel 17:25;  2 Samuel 19:13;  2 Samuel 20:9-10;  1 Chronicles 2:17. 2. A descendant of Ephraim.  2 Chronicles 28:1-27 :

    Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [10]

     1 Chronicles 12:18 (c) This man may be taken as a type of the believer who in utter consecration lays his all at the disposal of his Lord. He turns his back on the enemies of his Master. He casts in his lot with the people of GOD and with the Son of GOD who just now is despised and rejected by the world.

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [11]

    (Hebrew Amasa', עֲמָשָׂא , Burden), the name of two men.

    1. (Sept. Ἀμεσσά ; but v. r. Ἀμεσσαϊ v , and in  1 Chronicles 2:17, even Ἀμεσσάβ .) The son of Abigail, a sister of King David, by Jether or Ithra (q.v.), an Ishmaelite ( 1 Chronicles 2:17;  2 Samuel 17:25;  1 Kings 2:5;  1 Kings 2:32); a foreign paternity that appears to have caused his neglect in comparison with the more honored sons of David's other sister Zeruiah; until on the occurrence of Absalom's rebellion, whose party he naturally joined, and of which he was made general, his good conduct probably of the battle, although defeated, led David to offer him not only pardon, but the command of the army in the room of his cousin Joab ( 2 Samuel 19:13), whose overbearing conduct had become intolerable to him, and to whom he could not entirely forgive the death of Absalom (q.v.). B.C. cir. 1023. But on the breaking out of Sheba's insurrection, Amasa was so tardy in his movements (probably from the reluctance of the troops to follow him) that David despatched Abishai with the household troops in pursuit of Sheba, and Joab joined his brother as a volunteer. When they reached "the great stone of Gibeon," they were overtaken by Amasa with the force he had been able to collect. Joab thought this a favorable opportunity of getting rid of so dangerous a rival, and immediately executed the treacherous purpose he had formed. (See Abner). He saluted Amasa, asked him of his health, and took his beard in his right hand to kiss him, while with the unheeded left hand he smote him dead with his sword. Joab then put himself at the head of the troops, and continued the pursuit of Sheba; and such was his popularity with the army that David was unable to remove him from the command, or call him to account for this bloody deed ( 2 Samuel 20:4-12). B.C. cir. 1022. (See Joab). Whether Amasa be identical with the Amasai who is mentioned among David's commanders ( 1 Chronicles 12:18) is uncertain (Bertheau, Erklar. P. 140). (See David).

    2. (Sept. Ἀμασίας . ) A son of Hadlai and chief of Ephraim, who, with others, vehemently and successfully resisted the retention as prisoners of the persons whom Pekah, king of Israel, had taken captive in a successful campaign against Ahaz, king of Judah ( 2 Chronicles 28:12). B.C. cir. 738.

    Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [12]

    Amasa, 1

    Ama´sa (burden), son of Abigail, a sister of King David. As his name does not occur prior to Absalom's rebellion ( 2 Samuel 17:25), he must have been neglected by David in comparison with Joab and Abishai, the sons of his other sister Zeruiah, who had before then been raised to great power and influence. This apparent estrangement may perhaps be connected with the fact that Abigail had married an Ishmaelite called Jether, who was the father of Amasa. This is the more likely, as the fact is pointedly mentioned ( 1 Chronicles 2:17), or covertly indicated ( 2 Samuel 17:25) whenever the name of Abigail occurs, whereas we are quite ignorant who was the husband of the other sister, Zeruiah, and father of her distinguished sons. We may thus form a conjecture of the grounds on which Amasa joined Absalom, and obtained the command of the rebel army. He was defeated by his cousin Joab, who commanded the army of David. This transaction appears to have made David sensible of the neglect with which Amasa had been treated; and he eventually offered him not only pardon, but the command of the army in the room of Joab ( 2 Samuel 19:13), whose overbearing conduct had become intolerable to him, and to whom he could not entirely forgive the death of Absalom. David, however, was too good a soldier himself to have made this offer, had not Amasa, notwithstanding his defeat, displayed high military qualities during his command of Absalom's army. But on the breaking out of Sheba's rebellion, Amasa was so tardy in his movements (probably from the reluctance of the troops to follow him), that David dispatched Abishai with the household troops in pursuit of Sheba, and Joab joined his brother as a volunteer. When they reached 'the great stone of Gibeon,' they were overtaken by Amasa with the force he had been able to collect. Joab thought this a favorable opportunity of getting rid of so dangerous a rival, and immediately executed the treacherous purpose he had formed. He saluted Amasa, asked him of his health, and took his beard in his right hand to kiss him, while with the unheeded left hand he smote him dead with his sword. Joab then put himself at the head of the troops, and continued the pursuit of Sheba; and such was his popularity with the army, that David was unable to remove him from the command, or to call him to account for this bloody deed: B.C. 1022 [[[Abner; Absalom; Joab]]]

    Amasa, 2

    Amasa, a chief of Ephraim, who, with others, vehemently resisted the retention as prisoners of the persons whom Pekah, king of Israel, had taken captive in a successful campaign against Ahaz, king of Judah ( 2 Chronicles 28:12).

    International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [13]

    a - mā´sa ( עמשא , ‛ămāsā ), or read עמּשׁי , ‛ammishai , i.e. עם ישׁי , ‛am yishai , "people of Jesse"): The form עמשא , is based upon a mistaken etymology (from = עמס , ‛āmaṣ "to burden").

    (1) According to  2 Samuel 17:25 , Amasa is the son of Abigail, the sister of Zeruiah and David, and Ithra, an Israelite; but another source,  1 Chronicles 2:17 , calls his father Jether the Ishmaelite. He was a nephew of David and a cousin of Absalom, who made him commander of the army of rebellion. When the uprising had been quelled, David, in order to conciliate Amasa, promised him the position held by Joab; the latter had fallen from favor ( 2 Samuel 19:13 ). When a new revolt broke out under Sheba, the son of Bichri (2 Sam 20), Amasa was entrusted with the task of assembling the men of Judah. But Joab was eager for revenge upon the man who had obtained the office of command that he coveted. When Amasa met Joab at Gibeon, the latter murdered him while pretending to salute ( 2 Samuel 20:8-10;  1 Kings 2:5 ).

    (2) Son of Hadlai, of the Benē 'Ephrayim ("Children of Ephraim"), who, obeying the words of the prophet Oded, refused to consider as captives the Judeans who had been taken from Ahaz, king of Judah, by the victorious Israelites under the leadership of Pekah ( 2 Chronicles 28:12 ).

    References