Zipporah

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Fausset's Bible Dictionary [1]

 Exodus 4:25;  Exodus 18:2;  Exodus 18:6). (See Moses .) The Cushite wife mentioned in Numbers 12 as the object of Miriam's jealousy can hardly have been Zipporah who was then long before married to Moses, but probably a second wife taken after Zipporah's death. Josephus (Ant. 2:10, Section 2.) makes him marry at Meroe one Ethiopian princess. Zipporah as a Midianitess had delayed the circumcision of her son; her perversity well nigh brought divine vengeance on Moses. With reluctance and anger she circumcised him, exclaiming, "A bloody husband art thou to me because of the circumcision," which binds thee to me afresh.

 Song of Solomon 1:4, etc.)

Morrish Bible Dictionary [2]

Daughter of Reuel, or Jethro, and wife of Moses. Apparently she circumcised her second son, and declared that Moses was 'a husband of blood' to her. She had been sent back during the tribulation and deliverance of Israel, and then was brought by Jethro with her two sons to Moses. Jethro is a type of the Gentile rejoicing in the deliverance of Israel, and bringing back the loved remnant thereof in the last days.  Exodus 2:21;  Exodus 4:25;  Exodus 18:2 .

Smith's Bible Dictionary [3]

Zip'porah or Zippo'rah. Daughter of Reuel or Jethro, the priest of Midian, wife of Moses and mother of his two sons, Gershom and Eliezer.  Exodus 2:21;  Exodus 4:25;  Exodus 18:2. Compare  Exodus 18:6. (B.C. 1530). The only incident recorded in her life is that of the circumcision of Gershom.  Exodus 4:24-28.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [4]

Daughter of Jethro, wife of Moses, and mother of Eliezer and Gershom. When Moses fled from Egypt into Midian, and there stood up in defense of the daughters of Jethro, priest or prince of Midian, against shepherds who would have hindered them form watering their flocks, Jethro took him into his house, and gave him his daughter Zipporah in marriage,  Exodus 2:15-22;  4:25;  18:2-4 .

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [5]

ZIPPORAH . One of the daughters of the priest of Midian,   Exodus 2:21-22 (J [Note: Jahwist.] ), wife of Moses and mother of Gershom. According to   Exodus 18:2 (E [Note: Elohist.] ), she had another son. For the incident of   Exodus 4:24 ff. see Moses, p. 632 a .

Holman Bible Dictionary [6]

 Numbers 12:1  Exodus 2:21-22 Exodus 18:4 Exodus 4:24-25 Exodus 18:2-6

Easton's Bible Dictionary [7]

 Exodus 2:21 Exodus 4:24-26

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [8]

(Heb.Tsipporah', צַפֹּרָה . fem. Of Zippor; Sept. Σεπφώρα ; Josephus, Σαπφώρα Ant. 3, 3, 1 Vulg. Sephora ) , one of the seven daughters of Retiel or Jethro the priest of Midian, who became the wife of Moses and mother of his two sons Gershom and Eliezer (Exodus 2, 21;  Exodus 4:25;  Exodus 18:2; comp.  Exodus 18:6). The most noteworthy incident in her life is the account of the circumcision of the former, who had remained for some time after his birth uncircumcised; but an illness into which Moses fell in a khan when on his way to Pharaoli, being accounted a token of the divine displeasure, led to the circumcision of the child, when Zipporah, having, it appears, reluctantly yielded to the ceremony, exclaimed, "Surely a bloody husband thou art to me" (im, 26; see Frischmuth, De Circumcisioine Zippor-e [Jen. 1663]; Hase, De Sponso Sanguineo [Hal. 1753]). This event seems to have caused some alienation of feeling, for Moses sent his wife back to her father, by whom she was again brought to her husband while in the desert, when a reconciliation took place, which was ratified by religious rites:( Genesis 18:1 sq.). B.C. 1658. It has been suggested that Zipporah was the Cushite (A.V. "Ethiopian"), wife who furnished Miriam and Aaron with the pretext for their attack on Moses ( Numbers 12:1, etc.). A slight confirmation for this appears to be that in a passage of Habakkuk ( Habakkuk 3:7) the names of Cushan and Midian are mentioned together. Another suggestion is that of Ewald ( Gesch. 2, 229, note), namely, that the Cushite was a second wife, or a concubine, taken by Moses during the march through the wilderness-whether after the death of Zipporah (which is not mentioned) or from other circumstances must be uncertain. (See Moses).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [9]

zi - pō´ra , zip´ṓ - ra ( צפּרה , cippōrāh  ; Σεπφώρα , Sepphṓra ): The Midianite wife of Moses, daughter of Jethro, also called Hobab, and probably grand-daughter of Reuel, a priest of Midian at the time Moses fled from Egypt, later succeeded at his death by Jethro, or Hobab (  Exodus 2:21 ,  Exodus 2:22;  Exodus 4:25 ,  Exodus 4:26;  Exodus 18:2-6 ).

Whether or not Zipporah was the "Cushite woman" ( Numbers 12:1 ) is a much-mooted question. There is little ground for anything more than speculation on the subject. The use of the words, "Cushite woman" in the mouth of Aaron and Miriam may have been merely a description of Zipporah and intended to be opprobrious, or they may have been ethnic in character and intended to denote another woman whom Moses had married, as suggested by Ewald ( Gesch. des Volkes Israel , II, 252). The former view seems the more probable. The association of Midian and Cushan by Habakkuk ( Habakkuk 3:7 ) more than 700 years afterward may hardly be adduced to prove like close relationship between these peoples in the days of Moses.

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [10]

Zippor´ah (little bird), one of the seven daughters of Reuel (comp. Exodus 18), priest of Midian, who, in consequence of aid rendered to the young women when, on their going to procure water for their father's flocks, they were set on by a party of Bedouins, was given to Moses in marriage (, sq.). A son, the fruit of this union, remained for sometime after his birth uncircumcised, but an illness into which Moses fell in a khan when on his way to Pharaoh, being accounted a token of the divine displeasure, led to the circumcision of the child, when Zipporah, having it appears reluctantly yielded to the ceremony, exclaimed, 'Surely a bloody husband thou art to me' (). This event seems to have caused some alienation of feeling, for Moses sent his wife back to her father, by whom she is again brought to her husband while in the desert, when a reconciliation took place, which was ratified by religious rites (, sq.).

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