From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]

The explorations of recent years have yielded a rich store of materials for reconstructing the fashion of the walls of cities in ancient times. It can now be said with a great measure of definiteness to what period the remains of walls belong. This is of much importance as a test of the reliability of tradition. An instance falling within the Apostolic Age is found in the wall of Damascus, referred to in  Acts 9:25 (cf.  2 Corinthians 11:33). Examination of the wall as it now stands reveals three kinds of masonry-Turkish, Arabic, and Roman, the last in the lowest courses. The window shown as that by which St. Paul was let down is above the Turkish wall (cf. art. Basket), so that the tradition has little value.

The walls of Jericho are mentioned in  Hebrews 11:30 (cf. Joshua 6). The allusion is to the narrative of the OT, and gives no insight into the local conditions during apostolic times. The recent excavations of Sellin, following previous surveys of other explorers, enable us to trace the history of Jericho, both in OT times and in the time of Christ. The walls, outer and inner, of the Canaanite Jericho have now been laid bare for a considerable part of their circuit, and much insight has been gained into the life of the ancient city. The first conclusions drawn after excavation have been somewhat modified (see PEFSt xlii. [1910] 54 ff., 234; cf. ExpT xxi. [1909-10] 353ff.). The remains of the Roman or Herodian Jericho are a mile or two south of the ancient city.

The remaining examples of τεῖχος, a city wall, are grouped in Revelation 21, where there are six occurrences of the word ( Revelation 21:12;  Revelation 21:14-15;  Revelation 21:17-19). Although fully 200 ft. in height (or in breadth), the wall is insignificant compared with the height of the city itself (12,000 furlongs). The foundations are represented as monoliths of precious stone, filling the interval between adjoining gateways. See, further, art. Gate.

Walls of houses (τοῖχος) are referred to only metaphorically. The ‘whited wall’ of  Acts 23:3 is usually explained in the light of  Matthew 23:27, where there is a reference to the practice of whitewashing the cippus (cf.  Deuteronomy 27:2;  Deuteronomy 27:4), or memorial stone, which marked the presence of graves (or rather, ossuaria). The practice extended to the stone door leading into underground tombs (see EBi , art. ‘Tomb’), and to monuments on a large scale, if they chanced to contain graves. Apart from the reference to the dead, it is not unreasonable to suppose that the practice of treating the walls of houses with a coating of whitewash in order to freshen the exterior would suggest such a figure of speech. It would be most pointed in the case of Ananias, the high priest, if he sat to judge in a white robe, which clothed a character that was not white (see W. M. Furneaux, The Acts of the Apostles, Oxford, 1912, p. 360).

The ‘middle wall of partition,’ μεσότοιχον (ἄπαξλεγ. in the NT) τοῦ φραγμοῦ of  Ephesians 2:14, is a metaphor having its origin in the practice of building dividing walls, which were found between the rooms of ordinary houses, or between adjoining properties. While the figure of speech may well stand apart from the chel, or barrier, which marked off the Temple precincts in the narrower sense, and gave the limit not to be passed by any Gentile, we can imagine that this fence would be the φραγμός in especial to the Jewish mind. Some commentators think it did suggest the figure (Westcott); others think any kind of fence would serve the purpose (Meyer). Alford thinks the primary allusion is to the rending of the veil at the Crucifixion.

W. Cruickshank.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [2]

Chômâh ( חוֹמָה , Strong'S #2346), “wall.” This word is found in several Semitic languages and even in Egyptian. In Phoenician, it has the more restricted significance of “fortifications.” It is thought that the root meaning is “to protect,” as in the Arabic chama , “to protect.” Chômâh occurs about 120 times in the Hebrew Bible. Its first occurrence is in Exod. 14:22: “And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.” It is rare in the Pentateuch, in the historical books, and in the poetical books. The most frequent use is in Nehemiah, where Nehemiah is in charge of the rebuilding of the “wall” of Jerusalem.

The primary meaning of chômâh is a “wall” around a city, since in ancient Israel people had to protect themselves by constructing such a well-fortified “wall” (cf. Lev. 25:29-30). Stones were used in the construction of the “wall”: “Now Tobiah the Ammonite was by him, and he said, Even that which they build, if a fox go up, he shall even break down their stone wall” (Neh. 4:3). The “wall” was also strengthened by thickness and other devices. From Solomonic times double walls (casemate) served a strategic purpose in that they were easy to construct and could be filled in with rocks and dirt in the case of a siege. There was also another possibility during a siege: “And the city was broken up, and all the men of war fled by night by the way of the gate between two walls, which is by the king’s garden: (now the Chaldees were against the city round about:) …” (2 Kings 25:4).

In the case of war the enemy besieged a city and made efforts to breach the “wall” with a battering ram. The goal was to force a breach wide enough for the troops to enter into the city; “And Jehoash king of Israel took Amaziah king of Judah, the son of Jehoash the son of Ahaziah, at Beth-shemesh, and came to Jerusalem, and brake down the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim unto the corner gate, four hundred cubits [about six hundred feet]” (2 Kings 14:13). At the time of Nebuchadnezzar’s invasion and victory over Jerusalem, he had the “walls” of the city demolished: “And they burnt the house of God, and brake down the wall of Jerusalem, and burnt all the palaces thereof with fire, and destroyed all the goodly vessels thereof” (2 Chron. 36:19). For this reason Nehemiah had to help his unsuccessful compatriots to rebuild the “wall” about 135 years later: “Then said I unto them, Ye see the distress that we are in, how Jerusalem lieth waste, and the gates thereof are burned with fire: come, and let us build up the wall of Jerusalem, that we be no more a reproach” (Neh. 2:17).

Chômâh also referred to any “wall,” whether around buildings or parts of the city such as the temple precincts: “And behold a wall on the outside of the house round about, and in the man’s hand a measuring reed of six cubits long by the cubit and a handbreadth: so he measured the breadth of the building, one reed; and the height, one reed” (Ezek. 40:5).

The Septuagint gives the following translation: teichos (“wall”).

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [3]

1: Τεῖχος (Strong'S #5038 — Noun Neuter — teichos — ti'-khos )

"a wall," especially one around a town, is used (a) literally,  Acts 9:25;  2—Corinthians 11:33;  Hebrews 11:30; (b) figuratively, of the "wall" of the heavenly city,  Revelation 21:12,14,15,17-19 .

2: Τοῖχος (Strong'S #5109 — Noun Masculine — toichos — toy'-khos )

"a wall," especially of a house, is used figuratively in  Acts 23:3 , "(thou whited) wall."

3: Μεσότοιχον (Strong'S #3320 — Noun Neuter — mesotoichon — mes-ot'-oy-khon )

"a partition wall" (mesos, "middle," and No. 2), occurs in  Ephesians 2:14 , figuratively of the separation of Gentile from Jew in their unregenerate state, a partition demolished by the Cross for both on acceptance of the Gospel. Cp. Partition

Webster's Dictionary [4]

(1): ( n.) A work or structure of stone, brick, or other materials, raised to some height, and intended for defense or security, solid and permanent inclosing fence, as around a field, a park, a town, etc., also, one of the upright inclosing parts of a building or a room.

(2): ( n.) A kind of knot often used at the end of a rope; a wall knot; a wale.

(3): ( v. t.) To defend by walls, or as if by walls; to fortify.

(4): ( n.) A defense; a rampart; a means of protection; in the plural, fortifications, in general; works for defense.

(5): ( n.) An inclosing part of a receptacle or vessel; as, the walls of a steam-engine cylinder.

(6): ( n.) The side of a level or drift.

(7): ( n.) The country rock bounding a vein laterally.

(8): ( v. t.) To inclose with a wall, or as with a wall.

(9): ( v. t.) To close or fill with a wall, as a doorway.

King James Dictionary [5]

WALL, n. L., stake, post, probably originally a fence of stakes, a palisade or stockade the first rude fortification of uncivilized men.

1. A work or structure of stone, brick or other materials, raised to some highth, and intended for a defense or security. Walls of stone, with or without cement, are much used in America for fences on farms walls are laid as the foundations of houses and the security of cellars. Walls of stone or brick form the exterior of buildings, and they are often raised round cities and forts as a defense against enemies. 2. Walls, in the plural, is used for fortifications in general works for defense.

I rush undaunted to defend the walls.

3. A defense means of security or protection.  1 Samuel 25 .

To take the wall, to take the upper or most honorable place.

I will take the wall of any man or maid of Montagues.

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [6]

This word is used in Scripture, not unfrequently figuratively. Sometimes the Lord speaks of himself as "a wall of fire round about his people." ( Zechariah 2:5) And as a fence of safety in his salvation, which are Israel's walls and bulwarks. ( Isaiah 26:1) And the church describes Jesus as standing behind our wall and looking forth at the windows, when representing the wall of our mortal flesh, obscuring the otherwise glorious views the soul would have of his beauty, and which the soul will have when the spirit shall be disembodied. ( Song of Song of Solomon 2:9)

Easton's Bible Dictionary [7]

 Ezekiel 38:11 Leviticus 25:29-34 Numbers 13:28 Deuteronomy 3:5 1 Kings 6:7 7:9-12 20:30 Mark 13:1,2 Isaiah 26:1 60:18 Revelation 21:12-20Fence

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [8]

Bibliography Information McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Wall'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/w/wall.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.