From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament [1]


Troas was a seaport on the N.W. coast of Asia Minor, opposite the island of Tenedos, midway between the Hellespont and Cape Lectum, and about ten miles south of the much more ancient Troja (Ilium). The name was an abbreviation of ‘Trojan Alexandria’ (Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ Τρῳάς, Strabo, XIII. i. 2, Ptol. V. ii. 4; or Ἀλεξάνδρεια τῆς Τρῳάδος, Strabo, II. v. 36; or Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν τῇ Τρῳάδι, Paus. X. xii. 2). The qualifying adj., Τρῳάς, which was needed to differentiate this Alexandria from the many other cities of the same name, came to be used sometimes alone (as in Pliny, Historia Naturalis (Pliny) v. 33, ipsaque Troas ), though this led to ambiguity, Troas (ἡ Τρῳάς, the Troad) being properly the whole territory once ruled by the kings of Troy.

The city, which was founded by Antigonus and named Antigonia Troas, was enlarged and improved by Lysimachus and renamed Alexandria. The names are found together on some coins. ‘It appeared to be an act of pious duty in the successors of Alexander first to found cities which should bear his name, and afterwards those which should be called after their own. Alexandria continued to exist, and became a large place; at present’ [ i.e. under Augustus] ‘it has received a Roman colony, and is reckoned among celebrated cities’ (Strabo, XIII. i. 26). Troas was under the power of the Seleucids till the defeat of Antiochus the Great at Magnesia in 190 b.c., after which it was a free city of the kings of Pergamos, the last of whom bequeathed his realm to the Roman Republic in 133 b.c. The Troad had a romantic interest for the Romans as the traditional motherland of their race, and the honours which they lavished upon the city were the expression of a kind of filial devotion. As a colony with the ius Italicum , and as the seaport of a fruitful country, Troas rose to the front rank among the cities of Asia Minor. According to Suetonius ( Jul . 79), Julius Caesar had thoughts of making it the capital of the Empire instead of Rome, and Augustus may have played with the same idea (Hor. Od. III. iii. 61 f.), which finally presented itself as a possibility to Constantine three centuries later, before he decided to make Byzantium the future seat of the Empire (Zosim. ii. 30).

St. Paul’s connexion with Troas illustrates the high pressure at which he habitually worked. He was at least three times in the city, and could not but earnestly desire to stay and plant a church in a place of such importance, but each time he was torn away from it to some other sphere of labour. To Troas he came down from the borders of Bithynia, and received the vision which made him ‘immediately’ embark for Europe ( Acts 16:7-10). To Troas he came again, after his flight from Ephesus ( Acts 20:1-6), ‘for the gospel of Christ,’ eager to preach to willing hearers, yet restlessly preoccupied by thoughts of Corinth, and soon compelled to turn his back upon ‘an open door’ ( 2 Corinthians 2:12-13). On a third visit he ‘tarried sevendays,’ on the last of which-a Sunday-he took no sleep, but preached till midnight, breaking bread, and talking ‘till break of day,’ knowing that his ship was waiting him in the harbour ( Acts 20:6-12). On the Monday morning his companions went on board to rest, but the wakeful Apostle discovered that he could give a few more hours to Troas, take the short overland route-doubtless not on foot, if Christian courtesy and gratitude meant anything-to Assos, 20 miles distant, and there catch his ship after she had rounded Cape Lectum. And meanwhile how much could be done in the last flying hours of intimate and unforgettable fellowship!

On the theory that St. Paul never again visited Troas, it must be assumed that this was the occasion on which he left behind him the cloak and the parchments which Timothy was afterwards requested to bring to Rome ( 2 Timothy 4:13). But those who believe in the Apostle’s release from prison hold that Troas was one of the places to which he returned. The point is fully discussed in A. C. McGiffert, History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age , Edinburgh, 1897, p. 407 f.

Troas is now almost deserted. It bears the Turkish name of Eski Stambul or Old Constantinople, and its former greatness is attested by the extent of its ruins, including the old walls, which are six miles in circumference, and the supports of an aqueduct which conveyed water down from Mount Ida.

Literature.-R. Chandler, Travels in Asia Minor and Greece 3, London, 1817; Murray’s Handbook to Asia Minor , do., 1895.

James Strahan.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [2]

Alexandria Troas, now Eshki Stamboul , "old Constantinople." A city of Mysia, S. of ancient Troy, opposite the island Tenedos. The country was called the Troad. Antigonus built and Lysimachus enlarged. Troas. It was the chief port between Macedonia and Asia Minor. The roads to the interior were good. Suetonius says Julius Caesar designed to establish there the seat of his empire (Caesar, 79); Augustus and Constantine meditated the same project. Roman sentiment attracted them to Troas, the alleged seat from whence Aeueas, the fabled progenitor of Rome's founder, originally migrated. The rains are large, and the harbour still traceable, a basin 400 ft. by 200 ft. Here on his second missionary tour Paul saw the vision of the man of Macedon praying, "come over and help us" ( Acts 16:8-12).

During his next missionary tour Paul rested a while in his northward journey from Ephesus, hoping to meet Titus ( 2 Corinthians 2:12-13). On his return from this his first gospel preaching in Europe, he met at Troas those who went before him front Philippi; he stayed at T. seven days, and here restored to life Eutychus who had fallen from the third loft, being overwhelmed with sleep during Paul's long sermon: a reproof of carelessness and drowsiness in church on the one hand, and of long and late preaching on the other ( Acts 20:5-13). Here after his first imprisonment he left his cloak, books, and parchments in Carpus' house ( 2 Timothy 4:13). Troas had then the jus Italicum. Beautiful coins of Troas are extant, the oldest bearing the head of Apollo Sminthius. The walls enclose a rectangle, one mile from E. to W. and one mile from N. to S.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [3]

Tro'as. The city from which St. Paul first sailed, in consequence of a divine intimation, to carry the gospel from Asia to Europe.  Acts 16:8;  Acts 16:11. It is mentioned on other occasions.  Acts 20:5-6;  2 Corinthians 2:12-13;  2 Timothy 4:13. Its full name was Alexandria Troas, (Liv. Xxxv. 42), and sometimes it was called simply, Alexandria; sometimes simply, Troas.

It was first built by Antigonus, under the name of Antigonea Troas, and peopled with the inhabitants of some neighboring cities. Afterward, it was embellished by Lysimachus, and named, Alexandria Troas. Its situation was on the coast of Mysia, opposite the southeast extremity of the island of Tenedos. Under the Romans, it was one of the most important towns of the province of Asia. In the time of St. Paul, it was a colonia with the Jus Italicum . The modern name is Eski-Stamboul , with considerable ruins. We can still trace the harbor in a basin, about 400 feet long and 200 feet broad.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [4]

TROAS . A city of Mysia on the N.W. coast of Asia Minor. It was in the Roman province Asia. It was founded by Antigonus, and re-founded in b.c. 300 by Lysimachus, who named it Alexandria Troas. For a time under the Seleucid kings of Syria, it gained its freedom, and began to strike its own coins (examples exist from b.c. 164 to 65). Its freedom continued under Pergamenian and afterwards, from b.c. 133, under Roman rule. Augustus made it a Roman colony, and it became one of the greatest cities of N.W. Asia. The Roman preference was partly explained by their belief in the early connexion between Troy and their own capital. This place was a regular port of call on coasting voyages between Macedonia and Asia (cf.   Acts 16:8;   Acts 20:5 ,   2 Corinthians 2:12 ). St. Paul, with Silas and Timothy, approached Troas from the Asian-Bithynian frontier near Dorylæum or Cotiæum (  Acts 16:6-8 ). He did not preach in Mysia on the first visit, though the Western text at   Acts 16:5 makes him do so.

A. Souter.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [5]

A maritime city of Mysia, in the northwest part of Asia Minor, situated on the Egean coast, at some distance south of the supposed site of ancient Troy. The adjacent region, including all the coast south of the Hellespont, is also called Troas, or the Troad. The city was a Macedonian and Roman colony of much promise, and was called Alexandria Troas. The Turks call its ruins Eski Stamboul, the old Constantinople. Its remains, in the center of a forest of oaks, are still grand and imposing. The apostle Paul was first at Troas for a short time in A. D. 52, and sailed thence into Macedonia,  Acts 16:8-11 . At his second visit, in A. D. 57, he labored with success,  2 Corinthians 2:12-13 . At his third recorded visit he tarried but a week; at the close of which the miraculous raising of Eutychus to life took place,  Acts 20:5-14 , A. D. 58. See also  2 Timothy 4:13 .

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [6]

The city of Troas was situated close by the site of ancient Troy in the region once known as Mysia. In New Testament times this region was part of the Roman province of Asia, and Troas was the main port in the province’s north-west. (For map see Asia .)

From Troas travellers sailed across the Aegean Sea to Macedonia, from where a major road led to Rome ( Acts 16:8-11;  Acts 20:6-13). Troas therefore became an important town on the main route from Rome to Asia, and the Roman government gave it the status of a Roman colony. (Concerning Roman colonies see ROME, sub-heading ‘Provinces of the Empire’.) Paul visited Troas several times on his journeys to and from Rome ( Acts 16:8-11;  Acts 20:6-13;  2 Corinthians 2:12-13;  2 Timothy 4:13).

People's Dictionary of the Bible [7]

Troas ( Trô' Ăs ). A city in the northwestern part of Asia Minor, on the sea-coast, six miles south of the entrance to the Hellespont, and four miles south of the Homeric Troy. Alexandria Troas, as its name implies, owed its origin to Alexander the Great. Its port was excellent, and made Troas for many centuries the key of the commerce between Asia and Europe. Paul visited Troas twice, and perhaps three times. The first visit was on his second missionary journey. It was from Troas that, after the visit of the "man of Macedonia," he sailed to carry the gospel into Europe.  Acts 16:8-11. On his return journey he stopped at Troas for eight days and restored Eutychus to life.  Acts 20:5-10. Upon one visit he left his cloak and some books there.  2 Timothy 4:13.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [8]

Seaport town and district in Mysia, in the north-west of Asia Minor: it was visited by Paul on his journeys to and from Macedonia. On one occasion he abode there seven days, and raised Eutychus to life when, the disciples having come together 'to break bread,' Paul preached till midnight.  Acts 16:8,11;  Acts 20:5,6;  2 Corinthians 2:12;  2 Timothy 4:13 . It is now called Eski-Stamboul: there are many ruins of the ancient city (called Alexandria Troas), which was the chief port of the traffic from Macedonia.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [9]

a city of Phrygia, or of Mysia, upon the Hellespont, having the old city of Troy to the north, and that of Assos to the south. Sometimes the name of Troas is put for the province, wherein the city of Troy stood. St. Paul was at Troas, when he had the vision of the Macedonian inviting him to come and preach in that kingdom,  Acts 16:8 . Beside this, the Apostle was several times at Troas; but we know nothing particular of his transactions there,  Acts 20:5-6;  2 Corinthians 2:14;  2 Timothy 4:13 .

Holman Bible Dictionary [10]

 Acts 16:8 16:11 Acts 20:5-6 2 Corinthians 2:12 2 Timothy 4:13Paul

Scott Langston

Easton's Bible Dictionary [11]

 Acts 16:8-11 2 Corinthians 2:12 2 Timothy 4:13

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [12]

trō´as ( Τρῳάς , Trōas ): The chief city in the Northwest of Asia Minor, on the coast of Mysia in the Roman province of Asia. From here, according to   Acts 16:8 , Paul sailed. Here, also, according to  Acts 20:5-12 , Paul raised Eutychus from the dead. The name Troas was not confined to the town itself, but it was also applied to the surrounding district, or to that part of the coast which is now generally known as the Troad. In its early history it bore the name of Antigona Troas, which was given it by its founder Antigonus, but after 300 Bc it was generally known to the classical writers as Alexander Troas, a name given to it by Lysimachus. For a time the Seleucid kings made their homes at Troas. Later, when the city became free, it struck its own coins, of which vast numbers are found; a common type is one upon which is stamped a grazing horse. In 133 Bc T roas came into the possession of the Romans, and later, during the reign of Augustus, it was made a Roman colonia , independent of the Roman governor of the province of Asia. Its citizens were then exempt from poll and land tax. During Byzantine times Troas was the seat of a bishopric.

The ruins of Troas, now bearing the name of Eski Stambul , are extensive, giving evidence of the great size and importance of the ancient city. They have, however, long been used as a quarry, and the columns of the public buildings were taken to Constantinople for use in the construction of the mosque known as the Yeni Valideh Jami . The site is now mostly overgrown with oaks, but from the higher portions of the ruins there is an extensive view over the sea and the neighboring islands. It is only with difficulty that one may now trace the city walls and locate the square towers which flanked them at intervals. Within the walls are the remains of theater, the temple and the gymnasium, which was provided with baths. The port from which Paul sailed was constructed by means of a mole, with an outer and an inner basin. The most imposing of the ruins, however, is a large aqueduct which was built in the time of Trajan.

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [13]

Tro´as, more fully Alexandria-Troas, a city of northern or Lesser Mysia, in Asia Minor, situated on the coast at some distance southward from the site of Troy, upon an eminence opposite the island of Tenedos. Paul was twice at this place . The name Troas, or Troad, strictly belonged to the whole district around Troy. Alexandria-Troas is represented by the present Eski-Stamboul, and its ruins are now concealed in the heart of a thick wood of oaks, with which the country abounds.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [14]

Bibliography Information McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Troas'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.