From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Webster's Dictionary [1]

(1): ( n.) Fig.: To cause to resemble steel, as in smoothness, polish, or other qualities.

(2): ( n.) A piece of steel for striking sparks from flint.

(3): ( n.) A variety of iron intermediate in composition and properties between wrought iron and cast iron (containing between one half of one per cent and one and a half per cent of carbon), and consisting of an alloy of iron with an iron carbide. Steel, unlike wrought iron, can be tempered, and retains magnetism. Its malleability decreases, and fusibility increases, with an increase in carbon.

(4): ( n.) An instrument or implement made of steel

(5): ( n.) A weapon, as a sword, dagger, etc.

(6): ( n.) An instrument of steel (usually a round rod) for sharpening knives.

(7): ( n.) To overlay, point, or edge with steel; as, to steel a razor; to steel an ax.

(8): ( n.) Fig.: Anything of extreme hardness; that which is characterized by sternness or rigor.

(9): ( n.) A chalybeate medicine.

(10): ( n.) To cover, as an electrotype plate, with a thin layer of iron by electrolysis. The iron thus deposited is very hard, like steel.

(11): ( n.) To make hard or strong; hence, to make insensible or obdurate.

King James Dictionary [2]

Steel n. G.

1. Iron combined with a small portion of carbon iron refined and hardened, used in making instruments, and particularly useful as the material of edged tools. It is called in chemistry, carburet of iron but this is more usually the denomination of plumbago. 2. Figuratively, weapons particularly, offensive weapons, swords, spears and the like.

Brave Macbeth with his brandishd steel.

-- While doubting thus he stood, receivd the steel bathd in this brothers blood.

3. Medicines composed of steel, as steel fillings.

After relaxing, steel strengthens the solids.

4. Extreme hardness as heads or hearts of steel.

STEEL, a. Made of steel as a steel plate or buckle.


1. To overlay, point or edge with steel as, to steel the point of a sword to steel a razor to steel an ax. 2. To make hard or extremely hard.

O God of battles, steel my soldiers hearts.

Lies well steeld with weighty arguments.

3. To make hard to make insensible or obdurate as, to steel the heart against pity to steel the mind or heart against reproof or admonition.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [3]

Steel. In all cases where the word "steel" occurs in the Authorized Version, the true rendering of the Hebrew is "copper." Whether the ancient Hebrews were acquainted with steel is not perfectly certain. It has been inferred from a passage in  Jeremiah 15:12, that the "iron from the north" there spoken of denoted a superior kind of metal, hardened in an unusual manner, like the steel obtained from the Chalybes of the Pontus, the iron smiths of the ancient world.

The hardening of iron for cutting instruments was practiced in Pontus, Lydia and Laconia. There is, however, a word in Hebrew, paldah , which occurs only in  Nahum 2:3, and is there rendered "torches," but which most probably denotes steel or hardened iron, and refers to the flashing scythes of the Assyrian chariots. Steel appears to have been known to the Egyptians. The steel weapons in the tomb of Rameses III, says Wilkinson, were painted blue, while the bronze weapons were painted red.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [4]

 Jeremiah 15:12. Rather copper, which being mixed with "iron" by the Chalybes near the Euxine Pontus formed the hardest metal, "the northern iron and the steel." "Shall (Ordinary) iron break" this? No more can the Jews break the hardier Chaldees of the N. So in  Job 20:24;  Psalms 18:34, translated "brass" or "copper." Bronze was anciently used for strengthening arms.

Morrish Bible Dictionary [5]

The words are nechosheth or nechushah, and are often translated 'brass.' Either copper, or some alloy is most probable, not what is now known as steel, though in the first three passages it is 'a bow of steel.'  2 Samuel 22:35;  Job 20:24;  Psalm 18:34;  Jeremiah 15:12 .

Easton's Bible Dictionary [6]

 2 Samuel 22:35 Job 20:24 Psalm 18:34  Jeremiah 15:12

Holman Bible Dictionary [7]

 2 Samuel 22:35Minerals And Metals

Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types [8]

 Jeremiah 15:12 (b) This is a type of the great strength and power of the northern kingdom.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [9]

STEEL . See Mining and Metals.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [10]

stēl  : the Revised Version (British and American) substitutes "brass" for "steel" in   2 Samuel 22:35;  Job 20:24;  Psalm 18:34;  Jeremiah 15:12 , and "steel" for "torches" in  Nahum 2:3 . See Brass .