From BiblePortal Wikipedia
Revision as of 17:11, 15 October 2021 by BiblePortalWiki (talk | contribs)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words [1]

1: Υἱός (Strong'S #5207 — Noun Masculine — huios — hwee-os' )

primarily signifies the relation of offspring to parent (see  John 9:18-20;  Galatians 4:30 . It is often used metaphorically of prominent moral characteristics (see below). "It is used in the NT of (a) male offspring,  Galatians 4:30; (b) legitimate, as opposed to illegitimate offspring,  Hebrews 12:8; (c) descendants, without reference to sex,  Romans 9:27; (d) friends attending a wedding,  Matthew 9:15; (e) those who enjoy certain privileges,  Acts 3:25; (f) those who act in a certain way, whether evil,  Matthew 23:31 , or good,  Galatians 3:7; (g) those who manifest a certain character, whether evil,  Acts 13:10;  Ephesians 2:2 , or good,  Luke 6:35;  Acts 4:36;  Romans 8:14; (h) the destiny that corresponds with the character, whether evil,  Matthew 23:15;  John 17:12;  2—Thessalonians 2:3 , or good,  Luke 20:36; (i) the dignity of the relationship with God whereinto men are brought by the Holy Spirit when they believe on the Lord Jesus Christ,  Romans 8:19;  Galatians 3:26 . ...

 1—John 3:1,2 Revelation 21:7  2—Samuel 7:14 Matthew 5:9 Matthew 5:44,45 2—Corinthians 6:17,18 Matthew 5:9,45 Luke 6:35 Luke 16:8 John 12:36 1—Thessalonians 5:5 Luke 10:6 Luke 16:8 Ephesians 2:2 Matthew 13:38 Acts 13:10 John 17:12 2—Thessalonians 2:3 Luke 20:36 Matthew 8:12 13:38 Mark 2:19 Acts 4:36 Mark 3:17Child.  Romans 8:14-21 Romans 8:16,17 John 4:51 Acts 13:13,26 Matthew 14:33 16:16 John 1:49 Matthew 27:54 Luke 1:32,35 Acts 13:33 John 5:25 9:35  Luke 10:22 John 5:19 Revelation 2:18 Hebrews 1:2 4:14 6:6 John 14:9 Hebrews 1:3 1—Thessalonians 1:10  Acts 13:13,26 Romans 8:32 Matthew 3:17 John 3:16 Colossians 1:13 John 17:24 John 1:14 Hebrews 1:3 John 17 Psalm 2:7 Acts 13:33 Hebrews 1:5 5:5 Acts 13:33  Acts 13:22  Acts 3:22 7:37 Acts 13:33  Acts 13:34  Acts 13:33 Hebrews 1:5 Luke 3:22 Hebrews 5:5 Acts 7:56 Revelation 1:13 14:14 John 12:34  John 1:51 3:13,14 5:27 6:27,53,62 8:28  John 9:35  Matthew 8:20 11:19 12:40 26:2,24 Matthew 10:23 13:41 16:27,28 17:9 24:27,30 1—Corinthians 15:47 John 3:13 John 6:53 John 12:23 13:31 John 5:22,27 Revelation 1:13 14:14 Daniel 7:13

Morrish Bible Dictionary [2]

Besides the application of this term to natural generation, it is used metaphorically in scripture. The appellation 'son' implies 'likeness.' The term is employed thus to mark moral likeness, as of a son to a father, so 'a son of Belial,'   1 Samuel 25:17; 'thou son (υἱός) of the devil,'  Acts 13:10; 'sons of disobedience,'  Ephesians 5:6;  Colossians 3:6; also 'sons of light' and 'sons of day.'  1 Thessalonians 5:5 . It is also used to signify physical likeness: strong men are 'sons of strength.'  2 Kings 2:16 , margin  ; etc.

The idea of sonship differs somewhat in the case of Christians from that of being 'children.' The thought of 'children' is more of a generation which is of God. " Now are we the children of God."   1 John 3:2 . 'Sons' expresses the height of God's calling, and properly refers to heaven and glory. It implies intelligently entering into the purpose of God. God is bringing many sons to glory.  Hebrews 2:10 . Christians are represented as being both children and sons of God. The distinction between these two words is not always clearly maintained in the A.V. In  Romans 9:26,27;  2 Corinthians 3:7,13;  Galatians 3:7,26;  Ephesians 2:2;  Ephesians 5:6;  Colossians 3:6;  1 Thessalonians 5:5;  Hebrews 11:22;  Hebrews 12:5;  Revelation 2:14;  Revelation 7:4;  Revelation 12:5;  Revelation 21 : 12 (and often in the Gospels and the Acts) 'sons' (υἱός) should be read instead of 'children,' On the other hand, in  John 1:12;  1 Corinthians 4:14,17;  Philippians 2:15,22;  1 Timothy 1:2,18;  2 Timothy 1:2;  2 Timothy 2:1;  Titus 1:4;  Philippians 10;  1 John 3:1,2 , 'children' (τέκνον) should be read instead of 'sons.' Both words are employed in the Epistles of Paul, but "τέκνον" only, as regards believers, in the writings of John, except  Revelation 21:7 . See Sons Of God

King James Dictionary [3]

SON, n.

1. A male child the male issue of a parent, father or mother. Jacob had twelve sons. Ishmael was the son of Hagar by Abraham. 2. A male descendant, however distant hence in the plural, sons signifies descendants in general, a sense much used in the Scriptures. The whole human race are styled sons of Adam. 3. The compellation of an old man to a young one, or of a confessor to his penitent a term of affection. Eli called Samuel his son. Be plain, good son, and home y in thy drift. 4. A native or inhabitant of a country as the sons of Britain. Let our country never be ashamed of her sons. 5. The produce of any thing. Earth's tall sons, the cedar, oak and pine. Note. The primary sense of child is produce, issue a shoot. 6. One adopted into a family. Moses was the son of Pharaoh's daughter.  Exodus 2 . 7. One who is converted by another's instrumentality, is called his son also, one educated by another as the sons of the prophets. 8. Christ is called the Son of God, as being conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit, or in consequence of his relation to the Father. 9. Son of pride, sons of light, son of Belial. These are Hebraisms, which denote that persons possess the qualities of pride, of light, or of Belial, as children inherit the qualities of their ancestors.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [4]

Sometimes denotes a grandson, or any remote descendant,  Genesis 29:5   2 Samuel 19:24 . At other times a son by adoption is meant,  Genesis 48:5; or by law,  Ruth 4:17; or by education,  1 Samuel 3:6   20:35; or by conversion, as Titus was Paul's "son father the common faith,"  Titus 1:4 . And again it denotes a mental or moral resemblance, etc.,  Judges 19:22   Psalm 89:6   Isaiah 57:3   Acts 13:10 . In a similar sense men are sometimes called sons of God,  Luke 3:38   Romans 8:14 .

Webster's Dictionary [5]

(1): ( n.) Any young male person spoken of as a child; an adopted male child; a pupil, ward, or any other male dependent.

(2): ( n.) A native or inhabitant of some specified place; as, sons of Albion; sons of New England.

(3): ( n.) The produce of anything.

(4): ( n.) A male child; the male issue, or offspring, of a parent, father or mother.

(5): ( n.) A male descendant, however distant; hence, in the plural, descendants in general.

(6): ( n.) Jesus Christ, the Savior; - called the Son of God, and the Son of man.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [6]

Son. (Hebrew, ben ). The term "son" is used in Scripture language to imply almost any kind of descent or succession, as ben shanah , "son of a year," that is, a year old; ben kesheth , "son of a bow," that is, an arrow. The Greek word, bar , is often found, in the New Testament, in composition, as Bar-timaeus.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [7]

( Βen .) Used also for descendant. Figuratively too to express the characteristic: Barnabas means son of consolation; "sons of Belial," i.e. of worthlessness, children generally having their father's characteristic; "son of oil," abounding in oil or fruitfulness ( Isaiah 5:1 margin).

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary [8]

See Adoption ; Child .

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [9]

SON . See Child, Family.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [10]

properly בֵּ , Ben (often rendered in the plural "children"), Υἱός . From the root בָּנָה , To Build, are derived both בּ ; Son, as in Ben-hanan, etc., and בִּת , daughter, as in Bath-sheba. The Chald. also בִּר , Son, occurs in the Old Test., and appears in the New Test. in such words as Barnabas, but which in the plural בְּנֵין ( Ezra 6:16) resembles more the Hebrew. Cognate words are the Arabic Beni, Sons, in the sense of descendants, and Benat, Daughters (Gesenius, Thes. Hebr. p. 215, 236; Shaw, Travels, p. 8). (See Bar); (See Ben).

1. The word "son" is used with a great variety and latitude of significations both in the Old and the New Test., especially in the former, some of which often disappear in a translation. The following is a summary of these applications: It denotes

(1) the immediate offspring.

(2.) Grandson: so Laban is called son of Nahor ( Genesis 29:5), whereas he was his grandson, being the son of Bethuel (24:29); Mephibosheth is called son of Saul, though he was the son of Jonathan, son of Saul ( 2 Samuel 19:24).

(3.) Remote descendants: so we have the sons of Israel, many ages after the primitive ancestor.

(4.) Son-in-law: there is a son born to Naomi ( Ruth 4:17).

(5.) Son by adoption, as Ephraim and Manasseh to Jacob (Genesis 48). (See Adoption).

(6.) Son by nation: sons of the East ( 1 Kings 4:30;  Job 1:3).

(7.) Son by education, that is, a disciple: Eli calls Samuel his son ( 1 Samuel 3:6). Solomon calls his disciple his son in the Proverbs often, and we read of the sons of the prophets ( 1 Kings 20:35, Et Al. ) , that is, those under a course of instruction for ministerial service. In nearly the same sense a convert is called son ( 1 Timothy 1:2;  Titus 1:4;  Philemon 1:10;  1 Corinthians 4:15;  1 Peter 5:13). (See Prophet).

(8.) Son by disposition and conduct, as sons of Belial ( Judges 19:22;  1 Samuel 2:12), unrestrainable persons; sons of the mighty ( Psalms 29:1), heroes; sons of the band ( 2 Chronicles 25:13), soldiers, rank and file; sons of the sorceress, who study or practice sorcery ( Isaiah 57:3).

(9.) Son in reference to age: son of one year ( Exodus 12:5), that is, one year old; son of sixty years, etc. The same in reference to a beast ( Micah 6:6).

(10.) A production or offspring, as it were, from any parent: sons of the burning coal, that is, sparks which issue from burning wood ( Job 5:7). "Son of the bow," that is, an arrow (4:19), because an arrow issues from a bow; but an arrow may also issue from a quiver, therefore, son of the quiver ( Lamentations 3:13). "Son of the floor," threshed corn ( Isaiah 21:10). "Sons of oil" (Zechariah 3:14), the branches of the olive tree.

(11.) Son of beating, that is, deserving beating ( Deuteronomy 25:3). Son of death, that is, deserving death ( 2 Samuel 12:3). Son of perdition, that is, deserving perdition ( John 17:12).

(12.) Son of God (q.v.), by excellence above all; Jesus the Son of God ( Mark 1:1;  Luke 1:35;  John 1:34;  Romans 1:4;  Hebrews 4:14;  Revelation 2:18). The only begotten; and in this he differs from Adam. who was son of God by immediate creation ( Luke 3:18).

(13.) Sons of God (q.v.), the angels ( Job 1:6;  Job 38:7), perhaps so called in respect to their possessing power delegated from God; his deputies, his vice regents; and in that sense, among others, his offspring.

(14.) Genuine Christians, truly pious persons; perhaps also so called in reference to their possession of principles communicated from God by the Holy Spirit, which, correcting every evil bias, and subduing every perverse propensity, gradually assimilates the party to the temper, disposition, and conduct, called the image, likeness, or resemblance of God. Believers are sons of God. (See  John 1:12;  Philippians 2:15;  Romans 8:14;  1 John 3:1.)

(15.) Sons of this world ( Luke 16:8) are those who, by their overweening attention to the things of this world, demonstrate their principles to be derived from the world; that is, worldly minded persons. Sons of disobedience ( Ephesians 2:2;  Ephesians 5:6) are persons whose conduct proves that they are sons of Belial, of unrestrainableness, sons of libertinism. Sons of hell ( Matthew 23:5). Sons of the devil ( Acts 13:10).

In addition to these senses in which the word son is used in Scripture, there are others which show the extreme looseness of its application. So when we read of sons of the bride chamber. ( Matthew 9:15;  Mark 2:19) it merely indicates the youthful companions of the bridegroom, as in the instance of Samson. And when the holy mother was committed to the care of the apostle John ( John 19:36), the term son is evidently used with great latitude. (See Daughter), etc.

2. The blessing of offspring, but especially, and sometimes exclusively, of the male sex, is highly valued among all Eastern nations, while the absence is regarded as one of the severest punishments (Herod. 1, 136; Strabo, 15, 733; See  Genesis 16:2;  Genesis 29:31;  Genesis 30:1;  Genesis 30:14;  Deuteronomy 7:14;  1 Samuel 1:6;  1 Samuel 2:5;  1 Samuel 4:20;  2 Samuel 6:23;  2 Samuel 18:18;  2 Kings 4:14;  Isaiah 47:9;  Jeremiah 20:15;  Hosea 9:14;  Esther 5:11  Psalms 127:3;  Psalms 127:5;  Ecclesiastes 6:3. Comp. Drusius, Proverbs Ben- Siroe, in Crit. Sacr. 8, 1887; Lane, Mod. Egypt. 1, 208, 240; Poole [Mrs.], Englishw. In Egypt, 3, 163; Niebuhr, Descr. De L ' Ar. p. 67; Chardin, Voy. 7, 446; Russell, Nubia, p. 343). Childbirth is in the East usually, but not always, attended with little difficulty, and accomplished with little or no assistance ( Genesis 35:17;  Genesis 38:28;  Exodus 1:19;  1 Samuel 4:19-20; see Burckhardt, Notes on Bedouins, 1, 96; Harmer, Obs. 4, 425; Montagu [Lady M.W.], Letters, 2, 217, 219, 222). As soon as the child was born, and the umbilical cord cut, it was washed in a bath, rubbed with salt, and wrapped in swaddling clothes. Arab mothers sometimes rub their children with earth or sand ( Ezekiel 16:4;  Job 38:9;  Luke 2:7; see Burckhardt, Loc. Cit. ) . On the eighth day the rite of circumcision in the case of a boy was performed, and a name given, sometimes, but not usually, the same as that of the father, and generally conveying some special meaning ( Genesis 21:4;  Genesis 29:32;  Genesis 29:35;  Genesis 30:6;  Genesis 30:24;  Leviticus 12:3;  Isaiah 7:14;  Isaiah 8:3;  Luke 1:59;  Luke 2:21).

Among Mohammedans, circumcision is most commonly delayed till the fifth, sixth, or even the fourteenth year (Spencer, De Legg. Hebr. 5, 62; Strabo, 17, 824; Herod. 2, 36, 104; Burckhardt, Ut Sup. ; Lane, Mod. Egypt. 1, 87; Poole [Mrs.], Englishw. In Egypt, 3, 158; Niebuhr, Descr. p. 70). (See Circumcision). After the birth of a male child the mother was considered unclean for 7+33 days; if the child was a female, for double that period, 14+66 days. At the end of the time she was to make an offering of purification of a lamb as a burned offering, and a pigeon or turtle dove as a sin offering; or, in case of poverty, two doves or pigeons, one as a burned offering; the other as a sin offering ( Leviticus 12:1-8;  Luke 2:22). The period of nursing appears to have been sometimes prolonged to three years ( Isaiah 49:15;  2 Maccabees 7:27; comp. Livingstone, Travels, 6, 126; but Burckhardt leads to a different conclusion). The Mohammedan law enjoins mothers to suckle their children for two full years if possible (Lane, Mod. Egypt. 1, 83; Poole [Mrs.], Englishw. in Egypt, 3, 161). Nurses were employed in cases of necessity ( Genesis 24:59;  Genesis 35:8;  Exodus 2:9;  2 Samuel 4:4;  2 Kings 11:2;  2 Chronicles 22:11). The time of weaning was an occasion of rejoicing ( Genesis 21:8). Arab children wear little or no clothing for four or five years. The young of both sexes are usually carried by the mothers on the hip or the shoulder, a custom to which allusion is made by Isaiah ( Isaiah 49:22;  Isaiah 66:12; see Lane, Mod., Egypt. 1, 83). Both boys and girls in their early years, boys probably till their fifth year, were under the care of the women ( Proverbs 31:1; see Herod. 1, 136; Strabo, 15, 733; Niebuhr, Descr. p. 24). Afterwards the boys were taken by the father under his charge. Those in wealthy families had tutors or governors ( אמְנַי ם , Παιδαγωγοί ) , who were sometimes eunuchs ( Numbers 11:12;  2 Kings 10:1;  2 Kings 10:5;  Isaiah 49:23;  Galatians 3:24;  Esther 2:7; See Josephus, Life, § 76; Lane, Mod. Eqypt. 1, 83). Daughters usually remained in the women's apartments till marriage, or, among the poorer classes, were employed in household work ( Leviticus 21:9;  Numbers 12:14;  1 Samuel 9:11;  Proverbs 31:19;  Proverbs 31:23;  Sirach 7:25;  Sirach 42:9;  2 Maccabees 3:19). The example, however, and authority of the mother were carefully upheld to children of both sexes ( Deuteronomy 21:20;  Proverbs 10:1;  Proverbs 15:20;  1 Kings 2:19).

The first born male children were regarded as devoted to God, and were to be redeemed by an offering ( Exodus 13:13;  Numbers 18:15;  Luke 2:22). Children devoted by special vow, as Samuel was, appear to have been brought up from very early years in a school or place of education near the tabernacle or temple ( 1 Samuel 1:24;  1 Samuel 1:28). (See Education).

The authority of parents, especially the father, over children was very great, as was also the reverence enjoined by the law to be paid to parents. The disobedient child, the striker or reviler of a parent, was liable to capital punishment, though not at the independent will of the parent. Children were liable to be taken as slaves in case of non-payment of debt, and were expected to perform menial offices for them, such as washing the feet, and to maintain them in poverty and old age. How this last obligation was evaded, (See Corban). The like obedience is enjoined by the Gospel ( Genesis 38:24;  Leviticus 21:9;  Numbers 12:14;  Deuteronomy 24:16;  1 Kings 2:19;  2 Kings 14:6;  2 Kings 4:1;  Isaiah 1:1;  Nehemiah 5:5;  Job 24:9;  Proverbs 10:1;  Proverbs 15:20;  Proverbs 29:3;  Colossians 3:20;  Ephesians 6:1;  1 Timothy 1:9. Comp. Virg. Aen. 6, 609; and Servius, Ad Loc. ; Aristoph. Ran. 146; Plato, Phoedo, 144; De Legg, 9. See Drusius, Quoest. Hebr. 2, 63, in Crit. Sacr. 8, 1547),

The legal age was twelve, or even earlier, in the case of female, and thirteen for a male (Maimon. De Pros. c. 5; Grotius and Calmet, On  John 9:21).

The inheritance was divided equally between all the sons except the eldest, who received a double portion ( Deuteronomy 21:17;  Genesis 25:31;  Genesis 49:3;  1 Chronicles 5:1-2;  Judges 11:2;  Judges 11:7). Daughters had by right no portion in the inheritance; but if a man had no son, his inheritance passed to his daughters, but they were forbidden to marry out of their father's tribe ( Numbers 27:1;  Numbers 27:8;  Numbers 36:2;  Numbers 36:8) (See Child).