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Fausset's Bible Dictionary [1]

("Jehovah is my portion".)

1.  2 Kings 18:37.

2. High priest ( 2 Kings 22:4, etc.;  2 Chronicles 34:9, etc.;  1 Chronicles 6:13;  Ezra 7:1). In the 18th year of Josiah's reign the king directed him to have the Lord's house repaired out of the money contributed by the people. So faith, fully did the workmen execute their task that no reckoning was made with them of the money entrusted to them. Hilkiah in the course of the repairs "found the book of the law of the Lord, given by the hand of Moses," and being not able to read it himself gave it to Shaphan to read ( 2 Kings 22:8, etc., margin of  2 Chronicles 34:14). Possibly Moses' own autograph copy, but "by the hand of Moses" may mean only that God gave it by means of him ( 2 Chronicles 35:6;  John 1:17;  Galatians 3:19;  Exodus 9:35 margin,  Exodus 35:29;  Nehemiah 10:29).

Still the place where it was found, the temple, and its not having been found before but only brought to light during the repairs, and that by the high priest, identify it with the original temple copy deposited by Moses' command by the side of the ark within the veil ( Deuteronomy 31:9;  Deuteronomy 31:26). The two tables of the Decalogue were in the ark ( 1 Kings 8:9); the book of the law by the ark, probably in a chest, securing its safety, attesting its divine authority, and witnessing against Israel's breach of the covenant of which the ark was the symbol. The expression "the book of the law," not a book of laws, must refer to the well known book, the Pentateuch, not to some book then coming to light for the first time. Hilkiah "found" it, not "forged" it under the name of Moses, as rationalists in despite of the text conjecture. Shaphan "read therein" (not the whole, which would require a different phrase,  2 Kings 23:2) to the king.

The threats and curses of the law against transgressors (Leviticus 26; Deuteronomy 28; 29) were prominent in the passages read, and so overwhelmed the king that he tore his clothes. Probably Josiah, owing to the neglect of the law in Manasseh's and Amon's ungodly reigns, had never heard the law read from before. The intimate acquaintance with both its words and truths which the psalmists and prophets long before Josiah's time display establishes the certainty of the Pentateuch's prior existence and of its being the basis of their inspired utterances. Deuteronomy, the repetition of the law in a summary, was the leading portion read, just as at the reading in the feast of tabernacles every seventh year, the year of release, not the whole Pentateuch but lessons from it day by day were read ( Nehemiah 8:18;  Nehemiah 9:3-5, etc.;  Deuteronomy 1:5;  Deuteronomy 31:9-13).

"The covenant," and the words "with all their heart and soul" ( 2 Kings 23:2-3), answer to the same in  Deuteronomy 29:1;  Deuteronomy 30:2; compare also  2 Chronicles 35:3 with  Deuteronomy 33:10. Josiah's final and utter destruction of idolatrous symbols, removal of wizards, and keeping of the Passover were the fruits of his hearing Deuteronomy 16, 18. Allusions also occur to  Leviticus 23:5;  Leviticus 22:1;  Leviticus 22:5;  Leviticus 3:2-5;  Numbers 8:20-22;  Numbers 9:3, in  2 Chronicles 35:1;  2 Chronicles 35:6;  2 Chronicles 35:11-12. Jeremiah's frequent references to Deuteronomy are well known; compare  Jeremiah 11:3-5, where he quotes  Deuteronomy 27:26.

This correspondence is doubtless due to the prominence given to Deuteronomy in reading the book of the law just then found; the finding and the reading would naturally interest Jeremiah deeply and tinge his prophecies. Josiah read (i.e. caused to be read) "all the words of the book of the covenant found in the house of the Lord," i.e. all the essential parts, "the commandments, statutes, and rights," without the reasons and exhortations, narratives, etc.; just as Joshua ( Joshua 8:32-35) did at Ebal and Gerizim. The directions for the reading of the law every seventh year or year of release, also the direction ( Deuteronomy 17:18-19) that a copy of the law should be made for the king distract from that of the priests and Levites, imply a paucity of readers and of copies (compare  2 Chronicles 17:9;  2 Kings 14:6;  2 Kings 18:5-6).

Shaphan the professional "scribe" read it to Josiah, who as well as Hilkiah probably could not read, for reading and writing were confined to the "scribes," excepting a few who like Moses had learned in Egypt ( Acts 7:22). The ignorance of the law which this narrative implies accords with the prevalence of idolatry and of a low state of education ever since Jehoshaphat's alliance with Abab, except in Hezekiah's reign. Hilkiah was employed by Josiah also to consult Huldah the prophetess for him, and to help with Zechariah and Jehiel, "rulers of the house of God," in celebrating the Passover ( 2 Chronicles 34:20-22;  2 Chronicles 35:2;  2 Chronicles 35:8).

3.  1 Chronicles 6:45.

4.  1 Chronicles 26:11.

5.  Nehemiah 8:4; perhaps the same as the Hilkiah in  Nehemiah 12:7;  Nehemiah 12:21.

6.  Jeremiah 1:1.

7.  Jeremiah 29:3.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [2]

HILKIAH (‘Jah [is] my portion,’ or ‘portion of Jah’). A favourite priestly name. 1. Father of Eliakim, Hezekiah’s chief of the household (  2 Kings 18:18 etc.=  Isaiah 36:3 etc.,   Isaiah 22:20-25 ). 2. A priest of Anathoth, probably of the line of Eli (see   1 Kings 2:26-27 ), father of Jeremiah (  Jeremiah 1:1 ); he is not to be identified with the next. 3. The high priest in b.c. 621, who ‘found’ during the repairs of the Temple and brought to Josiah’s notice, through Shaphan, ‘the book of the law’ (  2 Kings 22:3-11 =  2 Chronicles 34:8-19 ), which occasioned the reformation of religion thereafter effected (  2 Kings 23:1-24 =  2 Chronicles 34:29 to   2 Chronicles 35:19 ). Hilkiah headed the deputation sent to consult Huldah on this discovery (  2 Kings 22:12-20 =  2 Chronicles 34:20-28 ); and presided over the subsequent purification of the Temple (  2 Kings 23:4 ff.). He was a chief actor in the whole movement. There is no reason to doubt that his find was the genuine discovery of a lost law-book; this book was unmistakably the code of Deuteronomy (wh. see). 4. Father of the Gemariah of   Jeremiah 29:3 .   Jeremiah 29:5 ,   Jeremiah 29:6 . Levites of the clan of Merari (  1 Chronicles 6:45;   1 Chronicles 26:11 ). 7. A ‘chief of the priests’ returning from the Exile in b.c. 536 (  Nehemiah 12:7;   Nehemiah 12:21 ). 8. A companion of Ezra at the public reading of the Law (  Nehemiah 8:4 ); he appears as Ezekias in 1Es 9:43 .

G. G. Findlay.

Smith's Bible Dictionary [3]

Hilki'ah. (God Is My Portion).

1. Father of Eliakim.  2 Kings 18:37;  Isaiah 22:20;  Isaiah 36:22. See Eliakim .

2. High priest, in the reign of Josiah.  2 Kings 22:4; seq.  2 Chronicles 34:9; seq.;  1 Esdras 1:8. (B.C. 623). His high priesthood was rendered particularly illustrious, by the great reformation effected under it, by King Josiah, by the solemn Passover , kept at Jerusalem in the 18th year of that king's reign, and above all, by the discovery which he made, of the book of the law of Moses in the Temple.

3. A Merarite Levite, son of Amzi.  1 Chronicles 6:45.

4. Another Merarite Levite, second son of Hosah.  1 Chronicles 26:11.

5. One of those, who stood on the right hand of Ezra, when he read the law to the people; doubtless a Levite, and probably a priest.  Nehemiah 8:4. (B.C 410).

6. A priest of Anathoth, father of the prophet, Jeremiah.  Jeremiah 1:1. (B.C. Before 628).

7. Father of Gemariah, who was one of Zedekiah's envoys to Babylon.  Jeremiah 29:3. (B.C. long before 587).

Morrish Bible Dictionary [4]

1. Father of Eliakim, the head of Hezekiah's household.  2 Kings 18:18,26,37;  Isaiah 22:20;  Isaiah 36:3,22 .

2. Son of Shallum, or Meshullam, and high priest in the time of Josiah king of Judah. He found a copy of the law in the temple, which caused great heart-searchings and repentance.  2 Kings 22:4-14;  2 Kings 23:4,24;  1 Chronicles 6:13;  1 Chronicles 9:11;  2 Chronicles 34:9-22;  2 Chronicles 35:8;  Ezra 7:1;  Nehemiah 11:11 .

3. Son of Amzi, a Merarite.  1 Chronicles 6:45 .

4. Son of Hosah, a Merarite.  1 Chronicles 26:11 .

5. One who stood by Ezra when he read the law.  Nehemiah 8:4; probably the priest in  Nehemiah 12:7,21 .

6. Priest of Anathoth and father of the prophet Jeremiah.  Jeremiah 1:1 .

7. Father of Gemariah.  Jeremiah 29:3 .

Holman Bible Dictionary [5]

 1 Chronicles 6:45 1 Chronicles 26:11 3 2 Kings 18:18 4 Jeremiah 1:1

5. Father of Gemariah, who was an emissary from Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon ( Jeremiah 29:3 ).  6 . High priest who aided in Josiah's reform movement ( 2 Kings 22:4 ).  7 . Person who stood with Ezra the scribe at the reading of the law ( Nehemiah 8:4 ).  8 . Priest who was among the exiles that returned ( Nehemiah 12:7 ).

Easton's Bible Dictionary [6]

  •  Nehemiah 8:4 .

    Copyright Statement These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., DD Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.

    Bibliography Information Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Hilkiah'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ebd/h/hilkiah.html. 1897.

  • Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [7]

    The father of Eliakim, ( 2 Kings 18:18) His name signifies, the Lord is my portion, from Cheleath, a portion; and Jah, the Lord. So also the father of Jeremiah was called by this name, ( Jeremiah 1:1) and the son of Amaziah. ( 1 Chronicles 6:45)

    American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [8]

    A faithful high priest in the reign of Josiah,  2 Kings 22:20 .

    This was also the name of the fathers of Jeremiah and Eliakim,  2 Kings 18:18;  Jeremiah 1:1 .

    Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [9]

    (Heb. Chilkiyah', חַלְקַיָּה , Portion Of Jehovah; often in the prolonged form Chilkiya'hu, חלְקַיָּהוּ ,  2 Kings 18:18;  2 Kings 18:26;  2 Kings 22:4;  2 Kings 22:8;  2 Kings 22:14;  2 Kings 23:4;  2 Kings 23:24;  1 Chronicles 26:11;  2 Chronicles 34:9;  2 Chronicles 34:14-15;  2 Chronicles 34:18;  2 Chronicles 34:20;  2 Chronicles 34:22;  Isaiah 22:20;  Isaiah 36:3;  Jeremiah 1:1; Sept. Χελκίας ), the name of a number of men, all priests or Levites.

    1. The son of Amzi and father of Amaziah, the sixth in descent from Merari, son of Levi ( 1 Chronicles 6:45). B.C. long ante 1014.

    2. The second son of Hosah, of the family of Merari, appointed by David as a doorkeeper of the tabernacle ( 1 Chronicles 26:11). B.C. cir. 1014.

    3. The father of Eliakim, which latter was overseer of the house (Temple) at the time of Sennacherib's invasion ( 2 Kings 18:18;  2 Kings 18:26;  2 Kings 18:37;  Isaiah 22:20;  Isaiah 36:3). B.C. ante 713.

    4. The father of Gemariah and companion of Elasab, who were sent with a message to the captives at Babylon ( Jeremiah 29:3). B.C. long ante 587. He was possibly identical with the foregoing.

    5. The father of the prophet Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 1:1). B.C. ante 628.

    6. Son of Shallum ( 1 Chronicles 6:13;  Ezra 7:1), or Meshullam ( 1 Chronicles 9:11;  Nehemiah 11:11), and father of Azariah, the high priest who assisted Josiah in his work of reformation ( 2 Kings 22:4-14;  2 Kings 23:4;  2 Kings 23:24;  2 Chronicles 34:9-22;  2 Chronicles 35:8). B.C. 623. "He is especially remarkable for the discovery which he made in the house of the Lord of a book which is called The Book of the Law' ( 2 Kings 22:8), and The Book of the Covenant' ( 2 Kings 23:2). That this was some well known book is evident from the form of the expression" (Kitto). "Kennicott (Heb. Teax. 2, 299) is of opinion that it was the original autograph copy of the Pentateuch written by Moses which Hilkiah found. He argues from the peculiar form of expression in  2 Chronicles 34:14, סֵפֶר תּוֹרִת יְהוָֹה בַּיִד משֶׁה , the book of the law of Jelhovah by the hand of Moses;' whereas in the fourteen other places in the O.T. where the law of Moses or the book of Moses is mentioned, it is either the book of Moses,' or the law of Moses,' or the book of the law of Moses.' But the argument is far from conclusive, because the phrase in question may quite as properly signify the book of the law of the Lord given through Moses.' Compare the expression Ἐν Χειρὶ Μεσίτου ( Galatians 3:19), and בְּיִד משֶׁה ( Exodus 9:35;  Exodus 35:29;  Nehemiah 10:29;  2 Chronicles 35:6;  Jeremiah 1:1).

    Though, however, the copy cannot be proved to have been Moses's autograph from the words in question, it seems probable that it was such, from the place where it was found, viz. in the Temple; and, from its not having been discovered before, but only being brought to light on the occasion of the repairs which were necessary, and from the discoverer being the high-priest himself, it seems natural to conclude that the particular part of the Temple where it was found was one not usually frequented, or ever by any but the high-priest. Such a place exactly was the one where we know the original copy of the law was deposited by command of Moses, viz. by the side of the ark of the covenant within the veil, as we learn from,  Deuteronomy 31:9;  Deuteronomy 31:26" (Smith). "That it was the entire Pentateuch is the opinion of Josephus, Von Lengerke, Keil, Ewald, Havernick, etc.; but others think it was only part of that collection, and others that it was simply a collection of laws and ordinances appointed by Moses, such as are given in the Pentateuch, and especially in Deuteronomy.

    The objection to its being the whole Pentateuch is the improbability of that being read in the audience of the people at one time, as was this book ( Deuteronomy 23:2); and there are many circumstances which render it probable that what was read to the people was the look of Deuteronomy, as the apparent allusion to  Deuteronomy 29:1;  Deuteronomy 30:2, in  Deuteronomy 23:2-3, and the special effect which the reading of the book had on the king, who did, in consequence, Just what one impressed by such passages as occur in  Deuteronomy 16:18, etc., would be likely to do. At the same time, even if we admit that the part actually read consisted only of the summary of laws and institutions in Deuteronomy, it will not follow that that was the only part of the Pentateuch found by Hilkiah; for, as the matter brought before his mind by Huldah the prophetess ( 2 Kings 22:15 sq.) respected the restoration of the worship of Jehovah, it might be only to what bore on that that the reading specially referred. The probability is that the book found by Hilkiah was the same which was entrusted to the care of the priests, and was to be put in the side of the ark ( Deuteronomy 31:26); and that this was the entire body of the Mosaic writing, and not any part of it, seems the only tenable conclusion (Hengstenberg, Beitrigye, 2, 159 sq.)"

    7. One of the chief priests (contemporary with Jeshua as high-priest) who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel ( Nehemiah 12:7). His son Hashabiah is named in  Nehemiah 12:21. B.C. 536.

    8. One of those who supported Ezra on the right hand while reading the law to the people ( Nehemiah 8:4). B.C. cir...410. It is somewhat uncertain whether he even belonged to the Levitical family; the date of the events with which he is associated seems to forbid his identification with the foregoing.

    International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [10]

    hil - kı̄´a ( חלקיּה , ḥilḳı̄yāh , "Yah is my portion" or "Yah's portion"): The name of 8 individuals in the Old Testament or 7, if the person mentioned in   Nehemiah 12:7 ,  Nehemiah 12:21 was the same who stood with Ezra at the reading of the Law (  Nehemiah 8:4 ). The latter appears as Ezecias (the King James Version) in 1 Esdras 9:43. Five of this name are clearly associated with the priesthood, and the others are presumably so. The etymology suggests this. Either interpretation of the name expresses the person's claim on Yahweh or the parents' recognition of Yahweh's claim on him.

    (1) The person mentioned above ( Nehemiah 8:4 , etc.).

    (2) A L evite of the sons of Merari ( 1 Chronicles 6:45 ).

    (3) Another Levite of Merari, son of Hosah ( 1 Chronicles 26:11 ). Is he the "porter," i.e. "doorkeeper" of  1 Chronicles 16:38 ?

    (4) Father of the Gemariah whom Zedekiah of Judah sent to Nebuchadnezzar ( Jeremiah 29:3 ).

    (5) The man in  2 Kings 18:18 who is evidently more famous as the father of Eliakim, the majordomo of Hezekiah's palace (  Isaiah 22:20;  Isaiah 36:3 ). Probably the father's name is given in this and similar cases to distinguish between two persons of otherwise identical name.

    (6) A priest of Anathoth, father of Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 1:1 ).

    (7) The son of Shallum, and the best known of the name ( 1 Chronicles 6:13 ). He is great-grandfather of Ezra through his son Azariah (1 Esdras 8:1; compare  1 Chronicles 9:11;  Nehemiah 11:11 ). He discovered the lost Book of the Law during the repairing of the Temple ( 2 Kings 22:4 ,  2 Kings 22:8 ); became chief leader in the ensuing reformation in 621 bc ( 2 Kings 23:4;  2 Chronicles 34:9;  2 Chronicles 35:8 ). He showed the recovered book to Shaphan the scribe, who, in turn, brought it to the notice of the king. At Josiah's request he led a deputation to Huldah the prophetess to "inquire of the Lord" concerning the new situation created by the discovery. The book discovered is usually identified with the Book of Deuteronomy. See Deuteronomy .

    Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature [11]

    Hilki´ah. Several persons of this name occur in Scripture, of whom the following are the chief:

    1. The father of Jeremiah .

    2. A high-priest in the reign of Josias (;; ).

    3. The father of Eliakim (;; ).