From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Holman Bible Dictionary [1]

Among Semitic peoples the usual greeting was and is peace: “Peace be to you, and peace be to your house, and peace be to all that you have” ( 1 Samuel 25:5-6 NAS; compare   Luke 10:5 ). The usual Greek greeting on meeting is charein, translated “hail” or “greeting” ( Luke 1:28;  Matthew 28:9 ). A kiss was frequently a part of such greeting ( Genesis 29:13;  Romans 16:16;  1 Corinthians 16:20;  2 Corinthians 13:12;  1 Thessalonians 5:26;  1 Peter 5:14 ). The command not to stop to exchange greetings ( 2 Kings 4:29;  Luke 10:4 ) underlines the urgency of the commission given.

The opening greetings of ancient letters typically took the form: X (sender) to Y (addressee), greeting ( Acts 15:23;  Acts 23:26;  James 1:1 ). A letter addressed to a social superior took the form: To Y (addressee) from X (sender), greeting ( Ezra 4:17 ). James is the only New Testament book to begin with the normal Greek greeting charein .

Paul transformed the customary greeting charein into an opportunity for sharing the faith, substituting “grace [ charis ] to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ” ( Romans 1:7;  1 Corinthians 1:3;  2 Corinthians 1:2;  Galatians 1:3;  Ephesians 1:2;  Philippians 1:2;  Titus 1:4 ). In Paul's opening greeting these terms always occur in this order, witnessing to the truth that peace cannot be experienced apart from the prior experience of God's grace.

The greetings of Hellenistic letters typically contained a prayer for the health of the recipients.  3 John 1:2 provides the best New Testament example: “Beloved, I pray that all may go well with you and that you may be in good health, just as it is well with your soul” (NRSV). Paul greatly expanded his opening prayers. Most of his letters begin with a prayer of thanksgiving, usually for the recipients. Ephesians begins with a benediction rather than a prayer of thanksgiving (also   1 Peter 1:3-5;  Revelation 1:4-6 ). In the Pauline corpus only Galatians lacks an opening prayer.

Hellenistic letters frequently included closing greetings. Most often these are “third person” greetings of the form X sends you greetings (by me) ( 1 Corinthians 16:19-20;  Colossians 4:10-14 ) or send my greetings to Y (who is not directly addressed; e.g.,  Colossians 4:15 ). Closing greetings often included a prayer or benediction. The simplest is “Grace be with you” ( Colossians 4:18;  1 Timothy 6:21;  Titus 3:15;  Hebrews 13:25 ). Elsewhere the benediction is expanded ( Romans 16:25-27;  1 Corinthians 16:23-24;  Galatians 6:16;  Ephesians 6:23-24;  Philippians 4:23 ). Some of the most familiar benedictions used in Christian worship come from such closing greetings: “The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost” ( 2 Corinthians 13:14 ); “Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep make you perfect in every good work to do his will.” ( Hebrews 13:20-21 ); “Now unto Him that is able to keep you from falling to the only wise God our Savior” ( Jude 1:24-25 ).

Chris Church

King James Dictionary [2]

GREE'TING, ppr. Addressing with kind wishes or expressions of joy complimenting congratulating saluting.

GREE'TING, n. Expression of kindness or joy salutation at meeting compliment addressed from one absent.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [3]

Greeting . See Salutation.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [4]

grēt´ing ( שׁאל , shā'al  ; χαίρω , chaı́rō , ἀσπασμός , aspasmós , ἀσπάζομαι , aspázomai ):

(1) Shā'al means "to ask," "to inquire of anyone respecting welfare," hence, "to greet." In the Old Testament the word "greet" occurs only once in the King James Version or the Revised Version (British and American), namely, in   1 Samuel 25:5 , "Go to Nabal, and greet him in my name." But it is implied in other places where shālōm ("well," "prosperity," "peace"), the common Hebrew greeting, is used; e.g. in  Genesis 37:4 , it is said of Joseph that "his brethren could not speak peaceably unto him," i.e. could not give him the common friendly greeting of "Peace!" "Peace be to thee!" So, in  Genesis 43:27 , the Revised Version (British and American) "He asked them of their welfare" (King James Version margin "peace");  Exodus 18:7 , "They asked each other of their welfare"(King James Version, margin "peace");  2 Samuel 11:7 , "how Joab did, and how the people did" (the Revised Version (British and American) "fared," the King James Version margin "of the peace of"); Joab said to Amasa ( 2 Samuel 20:9 ), the Revised Version (British and American) "Is it well with thee, my brother?" (Hebrew "Art thou in peace, my brother?"); Boaz greeted his reapers with "Yahweh be with you," and they answered, "Yahweh bless thee" (Rth 2:4; compare  Psalm 129:8 , "The blessing of Yahweh be upon you; we bless you in the name of Yahweh"). For the king, we have, the King James Version and the English Revised Version God save the king (m "Let the king live," the American Standard Revised Version "(Long) live the king") ( 1 Samuel 10:24 , etc.); "Let my lord king David live for ever" ( 1 Kings 1:31; see also  Nehemiah 2:3;  Daniel 2:4 , etc.). In Ecclesiasticus 6:5 it is said "a fair-speaking tongue will increase kind greetings," the Revised Version (British and American) "multiply courtesies" ( euprosḗgora ).

(2) When Jesus sent forth His disciples to proclaim the kingdom, they were to "salute" the house they came to ( Matthew 10:12 ), saying ( Luke 10:5 ), "Peace ( eirḗne ) be to this house!"; if it was not worthy, the blessing should return to themselves. After His resurrection He greeted His disciples saying, "Peace be unto you" ( Luke 24:36;  John 20:19 ,  John 20:21 ,  John 20:26 ); He left His "peace" with them as His parting blessing ( John 14:27 ) - "not as the world giveth," in a formal way. A frequent form of greeting in the New Testament is chairō ("to rejoice," imperative and infinitive, χαιρε , chaire , chairete , "Joy to thee," "Joy to you," translated "Hail!" and "All hail!"  Matthew 26:49;  Matthew 27:29;  Matthew 28:9;  Mark 15:18;  Luke 1:28;  John 19:3 ), "Rejoice!" ( Philippians 3:1; the English Revised Version, margin "farewell"). Another word for greeting is aspasmos , "greetings in the markets" (the King James Version  Matthew 23:7;  Mark 12:38 , "salutations";  Luke 11:43 , "greetings,"  Luke 20:46; also  Luke 1:29 ,  Luke 1:41 ,  Luke 1:44;  1 Corinthians 16:21;  Colossians 4:18;  2 Thessalonians 3:17; in all these places the Revised Version (British and American) has "salutation").

(3) Of epistolary greetings we have examples in  Ezra 4:17 , "Peace" ( shelām ), etc.;  Ezra 5:7;  Daniel 4:1;  Daniel 6:25 . These are frequent in the Apoc: 1 Esdras 6:7, "to King Darius greeting" ( chairō ); 8:9; 1 Macc 10:18, etc.; 2 Macc 1:10, "greeting, health," etc. We have the same form in  Acts 15:23;  Acts 23:26 . In  3 John 1:14 it is, "Peace (be) unto thee. The friends salute thee." Paul opens most of his epistles with the special Christian greeting, "Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ" (  Romans 1:7;  1 Corinthians 1:3 , etc.). Also at the close, "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with you" ( 1 Corinthians 16:23;  2 Corinthians 13:14 , etc.). He directs greetings to be given to various persons, and sends greetings from those who are with him (Rom 16:5-23;  1 Corinthians 16:19 f;   2 Corinthians 13:13;  Philippians 4:21 f;   Colossians 4:10 , etc.). In those cases the word is aspazomai , and the Revised Version (British and American) translates "salute," etc. (compare  James 1:1;  1 Peter 1:2;  1 Peter 5:14;  2 Peter 1:2;  2 John 1:3 ,  2 John 1:13;  Judges 1:2 ). See Godspeed; Kiss .

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [5]

(prop. שָׁלוֹם , Shalom', Peace, Χαίρω , to wish joy; also שָׁאִל , Shaal ´ , to ask after one's health). (See Salutation).