From BiblePortal Wikipedia

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible [1]

Gorgias . A general of Antiochus Epiphanes, who is described as ‘a mighty man of the king’s friends’ ( 1Ma 3:38 ), and a captain who ‘had experience in matters of war’ ( 2Ma 8:9 ). When Antiochus set out on his Parthian campaign (b.c. 166 or 165), his chancellor, Lysias, who was charged with the suppression of the revolt in Pal., despatched a large army to Judæa, under the command of Ptolemy, Nicanor, and Gorgias. The fortunes of the war are described in 1Ma 3:40; 1Ma 4:25 , 1Ma 5:16 ff., 1Ma 5:55 ff., 2Ma 8:12-29; 2Ma 10:14 ff; 2Ma 12:32 ff.; Jos. [Note: Josephus.] Ant. XII. vii. 4, viii. 6.

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature [2]

( Γοργίας , a frequent name among the Oriental Greeks), one of the generals of Antiochus Epiphanes, was chosen by Lyisias, the general and sinitester of Antiochus Epiphanes and at this time in sale command of the provinces from the Euphrates to the sea, to undertake an expedition in company with Ptolemy, the son of Dorymanan, and with Nicanor, against Judaea, B.C. 166 ( 1 Maccabees 3:38; Joseph. Ant . 12:7, 2, 3, where he is styled "a mighty man of the king's friends"). These generals were, however, totally defeated near Einmaus by Judas Maccabas in ( 1 Maccabees 4:1 sq.; Joseph. Ant . 1.c). In B.C. 165, Joseph, the son of Zacharias, and Azarias, two captains in the service of Judas Maccabaeus, anxious to get themselves a name, and acting without the orders of Judas, attacked the garrison of Jamnia. Gorgias, the governor of the forces at Jamnia, defeated them with great loss ( 1 Maccabees 5:56 sq. Joseph. Ant. 12:7, 6).

The account of Gorgias in 2 Macc. is very confused. In one passage he is described simply as "a captain, who in matters of war had great experience, and therefore sent with Nicanor, the son of Patroclus, one of the special friends of Ptolomaeuss, the governor of Coele-Syria and Phoenice (comp.  1 Maccabees 3:38; Joseph. Ant. 12:7, 3), to root out the whole nation of the Jews ( 2 Maccabees 8:9). In another passage he is represented as "governor of the holds" ( Στρατηγὸς Τῶντόπων [Alex. MS. Τρόπων ] ,  2 Maccabees 10:14), and apparently of the holds of the Idumeans (?) (Acrabattene [?], comp.  1 Maccabees 5:3; Joseph. Ant. 12:8, 1; see Ewald, Geschichte, 4:91, 358). He is afterwards, according to the present text, described as "governor of Idumea" ( 2 Maccabees 12:32).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia [3]

gôr´ji - as ( Γοργίας , Gorgı́as ): A general in the service of Antiochus Epiphanes (  1 Maccabees 3:38;  2 Maccabees 8:9 ). Lysias, who had been left as regent during the absence of Antiochus in Persia, appointed Gorgias to take the command against Judea in 166 bc. In  1 Maccabees 4:1-24 is recorded a night attack by Gorgias with 5,000 foot and 1,000 horse upon the camp of Judas Maccabeus in the neighborhood of Emmaus, in which Judas was completely victorious. The victory was all the more striking as the force of Judas was considerably smaller in number and had "not armor nor swords to their minds" (  1 Maccabees 4:6 ). Later on (164 bc) he held a garrison in Jamnia, and gained a victory over the forces of Joseph and Azarias who, envying the glory of Judas and Jonathan, in direct disobedience to the orders of Judas, attacked Gorgias and were defeated.

Jamnia as given in Josephus, Ant , Xii , viii, 6, is probably the correct reading for Idumaea in  2 Maccabees 12:32 . The doings of Gorgias in 2 Macc are recorded with some confusion. He was regarded with special hostility by the Jews. In  2 Maccabees 12:35 he is described as "the accursed man."

The Nuttall Encyclopedia [4]

A celebrated Greek sophist, born at Syracuse, in Sicily; settled in Athens, a swashbuckler of a man, who attached himself to the Eleatics ( q. v .), and especially Zeno, in order that by their dialectic "he might demonstrate that nothing exists, or if something exists, that it cannot be known, or if it can be known, that it cannot be communicated"; his work bore characteristically enough the title "Of the Non-Existent, or of Nature"!