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Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary [1]

It is also called Hazazon-Tamar, or city of palm trees,   2 Chronicles 20:2 , because there was a great quantity of palm trees in the territory belonging to it. It abounded with cyprus vines, and trees that produced balm. Solomon speaks of the "vineyards of Engedi,"  Song of Solomon 1:14 . This city, according to Josephus, stood near the lake of Sodom, three hundred furlongs from Jerusalem, not far from Jericho, and the mouth of the river Jordan, through which it discharged itself into the Dead Sea. There is frequent mention of Engedi in the Scriptures. It was in the cave of Engedi that David had it in his power to kill Saul, 1 Samuel 24. The spot where this transaction took place, was a cavern in the rock, sufficiently large to contain in its recesses the whole of David's men, six hundred in number, unperceived by Saul when he entered. Many similar caves existed in the Holy Land. Such were those at Adullam and Makkedah, and that in which Lot and his daughters dwelt after the destruction of Sodom. Such also is that described by Mr. Maundrell, near Sidon, which contained two hundred smaller caverns. Many of these were natural cavities in the limestone rock, similar to those in Yorkshire and Derbyshire, and in the Mendip hills in Somersetshire; and others, excavations made by the primeval inhabitants, for defence, or for shelter from the sun; and which subsequently served as retreats for robbers, as they are at this day. Josephus has given an interesting account of these caves, and the manner in which the robbers were taken by Herod. And Dr. E. D. Clarke has described similar retreats in the rocks near Bethlehem; others, between Jerusalem and Jericho, are mentioned by Mr. Wilson. Into such caves the Israelites frequently retired for shelter from their enemies,  Judges 6:2;  1 Samuel 13:6;  1 Samuel 14:11; a circumstance which has afforded some striking and terrific images to the prophets,  Isaiah 2:19;  Hosea 10:8;  Revelation 6:15-16 .

Fausset's Bible Dictionary [2]

("fountain of the kid or goat".) A town W. of the Dead Sea ( Ezekiel 47:10), in the wilderness of Judah ( Joshua 15:62). "The wilderness of Engedi" is explained as" the rocks of the wild goats" ( 1 Samuel 24:4). Abounding in caves on the road to Jerusalem where David found Saul. Originally Hazazon Tamar, "the felling of the palm," palm groves being then around though now none remain ( 2 Chronicles 20:2). About the middle of the western side of the sea. The fountain Ain Jidy is about 500 ft. above the plain and Dead Sea, and 1500 ft. below the top of the cliffs, bursting from the limestone rock down the deep descent amidst banks of acacia, mimosa, and lotus. The temperature at the spring head on a cool day Conder found 83 Fahr. (Palestine Exploration, August, 1875.)

When full it crosses the plain direct to the sea; but most of the year it is absorbed in the dry soil. The four kings of whom Chedorlaomer was chief attacked the Amorites here, and were in turn attacked by the five kings of Canaan in the adjoining vale of Siddim. The route of the Moabites and Ammonites invading Jehoshaphat was by Engedi, and still the marauding hordes from Moab pass round the S. of the Dead Sea along the western shore to Ain Jidy, and then westward wherever hope of plunder presents itself. The Song of Solomon ( Song of Solomon 1:14) celebrates Engedi's vineyards and clusters of "camphire," i.e. hennah flowers, white and yellow softly blended, wherewith Jewish maidens decked themselves.

Easton's Bible Dictionary [3]

 Joshua 15:62 Ezekiel 47:10 Joshua 15:62 1 Samuel 23:29 Genesis 14:7

The vineyards of Engedi were celebrated in Solomon's time ( Song of Solomon 1:4 ). It is the modern 'Ain Jidy. The "fountain" from which it derives its name rises on the mountain side about 600 feet above the sea, and in its rapid descent spreads luxuriance all around it. Along its banks the osher grows abundantly. That shrub is thus described by Porter: "The stem is stout, measuring sometimes nearly a foot in diameter, and the plant grows to the height of 15 feet or more. It has a grayish bark and long oval leaves, which when broken off discharge a milky fluid. The fruit resembles an apple, and hangs in clusters of two or three. When ripe it is of a rich yellow colour, but on being pressed it explodes like a puff-ball. It is chiefly filled with air...This is the so-called 'apple of Sodom.'" Through Samaria, etc. (See Apple .)

Holman Bible Dictionary [4]

 Song of Solomon 1:14

Engedi, also called Hazazon-tamar ( 2 Chronicles 20:2 ), was inhabited by Amorites in the time of Abraham and was subjugated by Chedorlaomer ( Genesis 14:7 ). In the tribal allotments, it was given to Judah and was in the district of Judah known as the wilderness district ( Joshua 15:62 ). When David was fleeing from Saul, he hid in the area of Engedi ( 1 Samuel 23:29 ). Saul was in a cave near Engedi when David cut off a piece of his robe but spared his life ( 1 Samuel 24:1 ). During the reign of Jehoshaphat, Moabites, Ammonites, and others gathered at Engedi to attack Judah ( 2 Chronicles 20:1-2 ).

Recent excavations at Engedi have uncovered a fortress belonging to the period of the monarchy, a workshop used in producing perfumes, and a sanctuary belonging to the Chalcolithic or Early Bronze Age.

Joel F. Drinkard, Jr.

People's Dictionary of the Bible [5]

Engedi ( Ĕn-Gç'Dî or Ĕn'Ge-Dî ), Fountain Of The Kid. A place in Judah, on the west side of the Dead Sea,  Joshua 15:62;  Ezekiel 47:10, about midway between its northern and southern ends. Engedi was first called Hazazon-tamar,  Genesis 14:7;  2 Chronicles 20:2; it was David's hiding-place from Saul,  1 Samuel 23:29;  1 Samuel 24:1; and where David cut off the skirt of Saul's robe, 24:4; its vineyards are mentioned,  Song of Solomon 1:14; now called ʾAin Jidy .

Morrish Bible Dictionary [6]

Town in the wilderness of Judah. David resorted to the strongholds at this place when pursued by Saul. The king sought David 'upon the rocks of the wild goats,' and then lay down to rest in the mouth of the very cave in which David and his men were. David out off the skirt of Saul's robe, but would not allow his men to injure him.  Joshua 15:62;  1 Samuel 23:29;  1 Samuel 24:1;  2 Chronicles 20:2 . The vineyards of En-gedi are spoken of in  Song of Solomon 1:14 . When the Dead Sea is healed in a future day the fishermen will stand on its shores from En-gedi to En-eglaim.  Ezekiel 47:10 . Identified with Ain Jidy, 31 28' N, 35 23' E .

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary [7]

Fountain of the kid,  1 Samuel 24:1,3; called also Hazezon-Tamar, that is, the city of palm-trees, there being great numbers of palm-trees around it,  Genesis 14:7   2 Chronicles 20:1,2 . It stood near the middle of the western shore of the Dead sea, twenty-five or thirty miles south- east of Jerusalem, in the edge of the loftiest part of the wilderness of Judea, a region full of rocks and caverns,  1 Samuel 23:29   Ezekiel 47:10 . See cut in Song of  Song of Solomon 1:14 .

Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary [8]

We read of the vineyards of Engedi  Song of Song of Solomon 1:14. A place remarkable for palm trees %and vines, and the church compares the Lord Jesus to both on account of his riches and sweetness and fulness. The word means, fountain of happiness.

The Nuttall Encyclopedia [9]

An oasis, a spot of rare beauty, once a place of palm-trees, 23 m. W. of the N. end of the Dead Sea.