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Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words [1]

Śar ( שַׂר , Strong'S #8269), “official; leader; commander; captain; chief; prince; ruler.” This word, which has an Akkadian cognate, appears about 420 times in biblical Hebrew. The word is often applied to certain non-lsraelite “officials or representatives of the king.” This meaning appears in Gen. 12:15, its first biblical appearance: “The princes —also of Pharaoh saw her [Sarah], and commended her before Pharaoh.…” In other contexts śar represents “men who clearly have responsibility over others”; they are “rulers or chieftains.” Śar may mean simply a “leader” of a profession, a group, or a district, as Phichol was the “commander” of Abimelech’s army (Gen. 21:22) and Potiphar was “an officer of Pharaoh’s and captain of the [body]guard” (Gen. 37:36). In such usage, “chief” means “head official” (cf. Gen. 40:2). Śarim (plural) were “honored men” (Isa. 23:8). Śar is used of certain “notable men” within Israel. When Abner was killed by Joab, David said to his servants (palace officials), “Know ye not that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel?” (2 Sam. 3:38; cf. Num. 21:18). Joab, Abishai, and Ittai were “commanders” in David’s army (cf. 2 Sam. 23:19). “Local leaders in Israel” are also called śarim  :—“And the princes —of Succoth said …” (Judg. 8:6).

In several passages, śar refers to the task of “ruling.” Moses tried to break up a fight between two Hebrews and one of them asked him, “Who made thee a prince and a judge over us?” (Exod. 2:14). In such a context, śar means “leader,” “ruler,” and “judge”: “Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens …” (Exod. 18:21). The “commander” of Israel’s army was called a śar (1 Sam. 17:55).—

In Judg. 9:30, śar represents a “ruler” of a city. Any government official might be called a śar (Neh. 3:14). “Religious officiants” who served in the temple of God were also called śarim (Jer. 35:4).

The “leaders” or “chiefs” of the Levites (1 Chron. 15:16) or priests (Ezra 8:24) are śarim . In 1 Chron. 24:5, the word appears to be a title: “Thus were they divided by lot, one sort with another; for the governors of the sanctuary [ śarim qodes ] and governors of the house of God [ śarim ha’elohim ], were of the sons of Eleazar and of the sons of Ithamar” (NASB, “officers of the sanctuary” and “officers of God”). In the Book of Daniel, śar is used of “superhuman beings” or “patron angels.” Thus, Michael is the “prince” of Judah (Dan. 10:21; cf. Josh. 5:14). Daniel 8:25 speaks of a king who will arise and “stand up against the Prince of princes” (i.e., the Messiah).

King James Dictionary [2]

Commander n.

1. A chief one who has supreme authority a leader the chief officer of an army, or of any division of it. The term may also be applied to the admiral of a fleet, or of a squadron, or to any supreme officer as the commander of the land or of the naval force the commander of a ship. 2. One on whom is bestowed a benefice or commandry. 3. A heavy beetle or wooden mallet, used in paving, &c. 4. An instrument of surgery.

Webster's Dictionary [3]

(1): (n.) A chief; one who has supreme authority; a leader; the chief officer of an army, or of any division of it.

(2): (n.) An officer who ranks next below a captain, - ranking with a lieutenant colonel in the army.

(3): (n.) The chief officer of a commandery.

(4): (n.) A heavy beetle or wooden mallet, used in paving, in sail lofts, etc.