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Capitolium [1]

is a word applied by Latin writers chiefly to certain temples. The first was a small temple, supposed to have been built by Numa, and dedicated to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, situated on the Esquiline, near the spot which was afterwards the circus of Flora. It did not receive the name Capitoliunm until after the foundation of the second one here mentioned, from which it was then distinguished as Capitolium vetus. The second was the Temple of Jupiter Maximus, on the Mons Tarpeius, so called from a human head being discovered in digging the foundations. This temple was begun by Tarquinius Priscus, continued by Servius Tullius, and finished by Tarquinius Superbus. It was thrice burned to the ground, and thrice rebuilt, the third time by Domitian. The Capitolislm contained three temples within the same peristyle, or three cells parallel with each other, the partition walls of which were common and all under the same roof. In the centre was the seat of Jupiter Optlmus Maximus, while that of Minerva was on the right, and that of Juno upon the left. Capitolium is sometimes put for the whole mount on which the temple stood, and is also used to distinguish the chief temples in other cities besides Rome.